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Full text of "Learning to drive safely"

SCHOOL 



629.2807 
L372X 



LEARNING TO 




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LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



by 



A. R. LAUER, A.M., M.S., Ph.D. 

Professor of Psychology- 
Director of the Driving Laboratory 
Science Research Institute 
Iowa State College 
Ames, Iowa 



BURGESS PUBLISHING CO. 

Minneapolis 15, Minnesota 



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Copyright 1949 

by 

A. R. Lauer 



A Text-Manual and Guide to the Science of Driving 

Instruction with Suggestions for Training Areas and 

Evaluation Techniques for Courses in High Schools, 

Colleges, and Teacher Training Institutions 



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FOREWORD 

WHAT DOES SAFETY MEAN?* 

"A very "bright young woman writing for a New York paper recently described the 
word SAFETY and all it stands for. She said that the advance of civilization is 
pretty much written in the willingness to "take chances" and consignes organized 
safety efforts to the outer darkness as defeating that purpose. 

The only trouble, of course, with this smart young woman was that she hadn't 
taken the trouble to check into the true nature of the accident -prevention movement. 
If she had done this, her story would have "been something quite different. 

There is nothing in the safety credo that tells you not to take chances. It 
recognizes that ours is essentially a dangerous age when it is utterly out of the 
question to avoid all chance -taking. We couldn't fight a war or live at peace with- 
out chances. 

But what it is concerned with is the taking of needless chances and inviting 
needless sacrifices. 

When the order goes out for a night bomber raid on Berlin, there is full recog- 
nition that it's a hazardous mission. Those in charge know that there will be flak 
and they count on opposition from enemy night fighters. 

Those are perils that just have to be accepted. But there are many things that 
can be done to lessen the perils; such things as speed and dependability of motors, 
thickness of armor, provisions for oxygen, good parachutes, ample training for pilots 
and crew, etc. All of these precautions are taken to the full limit of ability. 
Nothing that isn't inherently a matter of chance is left to chance. 

Under the concept portrayed by the smart young New York Newspaper woman, an ad- 
herence to the gospel of safety would preclude such bombing missions over Berlin. 
But, of course, that isn't what happens at all. 

The example cited here can be parallel on the home -front --on the highways, in 
factories, in the home. Safety never says: "Don't do something that needs doing." 
Rather, it says: "Do it, but do it in the most prudent manner possible so you'll be 
on hand to do it again sometime." 






Featured editorial in Public Safety written by W. Earl Hall, Managing Editor of 
the Mason City Globe Gazette. Mr. Hall, former president of the Iowa State Safety 
Council, and a member of the State Board of Education, is an ardent supporter of 
safety education in all its phases. He has been honored several times by awards 
for best editorials on safety. 



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THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE 

Driver education and driver training have proved themselves in every test made. 
Prior to the war a large number of high schools pioneered in this training. During 
the period of mobilization it was found that the driving habits and practices learned 
by civilians were faulty and inadequate for military efficiency. Special driving 
schools were set up to correct the above faults since only a small percentage of re- 
cruits had had the advantage of such training. 

Among the most meritorious efforts were those carried on by the Women's Army 
Corps. In Des Moines, Iowa the Corps received a special award for 1,500,000 miles 
of traffic driving without an accident. 

As a result, through the combined efforts of schools and outside agencies, the 
fatal accident toll in the United States has gradually "been decreased each year from 
around 40,000 in I9UI to 32,300 in I9V7. At the same time, there are ahout 6,000,000 
more motor vehicles on the highways and mileage, as well as prevailing speeds, is up 
to some extent. 

This manual is the result of twenty years' study of drivers' aptitudes, habits, 
abilities, and disabilities, in addition to ten years' experience in teaching drivers 
and instructors of driving at Iowa State College. Every step outlined has been care- 
fully tested and evaluated for difficulty, order of presentation, and usefulness in 
the laboratory of educational expediency. We refer to all phases of instruction 
covered in this Manual as driving since we combine classroom instruction with behind- 
t he -wheel training. 

TO DRIVING- INSTRUCTORS: - Each instructor should master the separate sections 
of the Manual thoroughly, covering every paragraph. Some of the instruction is 
directed to the student of driving, but the instructor should be fully cognizant of 
what the former is supposed to know in order to properly check progress of the class 
as a whole. 

If any points are not clearly stated, be sure to satisfy yourself as to the 
facts in order that you may elaborate anything not sufficiently stressed, or anything 
which is otherwise unclear. Your own experience should be sufficient to supply the 
details in most cases, but constant study is necessary. 

All beginning students of driving should be held responsible for the sections 
and parts given in the student's preface in order to properly understand the pro- 
cedures and the instructional processes. 

Since the Manual may be used for any length of course from ten lessons up, the 
separate units can be elaborated to fit the needs of the course being offered. It 
covers the critical points we have found most essential during ten years' experi- 
ence with the AAA system of driving instruction. Certain modifications have been 
made to make the system usable in the situations we have met and references from 
standard texts may be selected to fit any system of instruction being used. The 
Manual follows a step by step approach to driving which develops students ' knowledge, 
skill, confidence, and attitudes in a progressive manner. 



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TO STUDENTS OF DRIVING: - This Manual is designed to serve as a guide through 
the fundamental steps of driving in order to properly integrate the practical work 
"behind the wheel with text hook and outside readings necessary for a proper under- 
standing of driving and successful driving experience. 

While you are urged to read the entire Manual carefully, you will he expected 
to master the following sections which are of primary importance to "beginning stu- 
dents of driving. 



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2. 

3. 

k. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 



12, 



Foreword 

Tahle of Contents 

Section I - Acknowledgements 

Section II - Introduction 

Section III - General Objectives 

Section IV - How to Use this Manual 

Section V - Classification of Duties and Responsibilities 

Section VI - Specific Precautions for Use of Dual -Control Cars 

Section VIII - Points in Which One is Judged as a Driver 

Section IX - Exercises for Developing Skill at the Wheel 

The one-page topics preceding each unit and the answers to questions 
at the end of each unit are to he especially studied. The answers are 
to he written out on the perforated pages following the unit. 

Section XII - Newer and Unusual Control Devices on Automohiles and Motorized 
Equipment . 



Perusal of the various tests and training devices at the end of the Manual would 
he of interest to everyone learning to drive hut are not stressed as musts for "begin- 
ners. 



Novemher 22, 19^8 



A. R. Lauer, Ph. D. 
Professor of Psychology 
Director, Driving Laboratory 
Science Research Institute 
Iowa State College 
Ames, Iowa 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

Full Dual -control Car , x . j_3 

Practical Aspects of Driving Stressed 13 

Lane Technical High School 2k 

Lane Technical High School 2k 

Checking Car Headlights "" 28 

Field of Vision Test 32 

Field of Vision Test ""'.".'."'.' 32 

Profile of Driving Ability 36 

Clason Acuity Test 37 

Distance Judgment Test (new form) 38 

Drivometer "' g^ 

Signs Used on Driving Field 76 

Types of Eoads and Poad Surfaces 80 

Distance Judgment Test (older form) 115 

Driver Training Field 128 

Driver Training Field (Iowa State Teachers College) 12 9 

Driver Training Field -(Lane Technical High School) 130 

Stoner Traffic Board. IjO 

Driving Test Fields 133 

Drivometer (different view than previous illustration) 13U 

Color Vision Diagnostic Chart 136 

Field of Vision Test 136 

Reed-Van Osdal F^ye Dominance Test 136 

Glare Test...'. j_^g 

Iowa State Mult i -Attitude Test . I39 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword I 

The Author ' s Preface ii 

List of Illustrations iv 

Table of Contents v 

I. Acknowledgements 1 

II. Introduction 2 

III. General Objectives of a Typical Course and Discussion of Various 

Methods of Teaching Driving , k 

IV. How to Use this Manual 7 

V. Classification of Duties and Responsibilities in a Typical Driver 

Training Situation 8 

A. Abbreviated schedule of obligations of the supervisor 8 

B. Abbreviated schedule of obligations for head instructor 9 

C. Abbreviated schedule of obligations for instructor. 9 

D. Abbreviated schedule of obligations for learners 10 

VI. Specific Precautions and Instructions for Protection of Dual- 
control Cars 12 

VII. Principles for Safety and Efficient Training Ik 

VIII. Points in Which One is Judged a Safe Driver 16 

IX. Exercises for Developing Skill at the Wheel Which Help to Make a 

Good Driver ]_8 

X. Typical Assignments for Driver Training Groups 20 

XI . Course of Instruction 23 

Unit One - Getting acquainted with the car 23 

Unit Two - Learning to start and stop smoothly 31 

Unit Three - Learning the finer points in starting and stopping. 

Mastery of the clutch kl 

Unit Four - Learning to back and turn safely kf 

Unit Five - Developing confidence in driving and mastery of 

turns 53 

Unit Six - Learning to park easily and safely '. 59 

Unit Seven - Learning to get your car in and out of close places 65 

Unit Eight - Preparing for traffic and road driving 75 

Unit Nine - Discussion of the principles of traffic driving and 

their importance in safe motoring 83 

Unit Ten - Driving in traffic _ _ __ 91 

XII. Newer and Unusual Control Devices for Automobiles and Motorized 

Equipment ]_ 1 

A. Gears and shifts 2.Q1 

B. Brakes and holding devices 102 

C . Lights 10 14. 

D. Signaling devices " iq^ 

E. Air conditioners IO5 

F. Individual wheel suspension __ I05 

G. Steering mechanisms Iqs 

H. Tires 2.05 



I. Throttle and choke 106 

J. Starter 106 

K. Supplement of latest developments 106 

L. Miscellaneous 106 

M. Tractor and truck operation 107 

XIII. Appendix 108 

Introduction 108 

A. General Regulations for Students and Instructors 109 

B. Devices for Keeping Eecords and Evaluating Driving Ill 

1. Enrollment Eecord Card Ill 

2. Laboratory Eecord Form 112 

3- Clinical Eecord Form 113 

k. Visual Examination Eecord, L-^3 11^ 

5. Eogers-Lauer Driver Training Inventory 116 

6. Miller-Lauer Driving Ability Test 117 

7 . Driving Field Test : 118 

8. I.S.C. Driver-Training Practical Test - Eevised 19^3 119 

9. A Form for Field Test of Drivers 121 

10. Form for Checking Cars 122 

11. Questions on "Are You a Safe Driver?." ' 123 

12. Mileage Sheet for Training Car 124- 

C. Equipment List for Driver Training 125 

D. Slides and Films for Use in Driver Training 125 

E. Driving Fields and Training Devices 128 

1. Iowa State College Field 128 

2. Iowa State Teachers' College Field 129 

3. Driver Training Field - Lane Technical High School, 

Chicago, Illinois 130 

k. Stoner Traffic Board 130 

5. Stoner Traffic Board Test Eecord 131 

6. Denger Modified Field - for small area 132 

F. Simple Aids for Use in Testing and Teaching Drivers 135 

G. Iowa State Multi -Attitude Scale 139 

H. Eeferences 1^0 

I. Index .' lte 



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I. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The writer has drawn heavily on contributions of the National Research Council, the 
National Safety Council, the Public Roads Administration, the Highway Research Board, the 
Iowa State Safety Council, the Yale Bureau for Street Traffic Research, the Motor Vehicle 
Departments of Iowa and Connecticut, the American Automobile Association, the National 
Conservation Bureau, the Commission for Safety Education of the National Education Associ- 
ation, Washington, D. C., and other authorized agencies interested and active in safety. 

Special recognition is tendered Professor Amos E. Neyhart of Pennsylvania State Col- 
lege and Consultant for the American Automobile Association, for literal adoption of his 
methods and to Professor William Sears, formerly of lane Technical High School and now 
Safety Supervisor for the City of Chicago, for suggestions on mass methods of teaching 
driving. Credit is due Dr. F. R. Noffsinger, former Educational Consultant for the Ameri- 
can Automobile Association, for suggestions on methods of organizing units of study and 
principles of application to curricular conditions and requirements. 

The writer is further greatly indebted to former students in Safety. and Human Con- 
servation at Iowa State College who have contributed many suggestions as to procedure. It 
is impossible to mention all, but a few of these are Earl Allgaier of the American Auto- 
mobile Association, Washington, D. C, Paul F. Hill of the National Safety Council, 
Chicago, B. L. Woodcock, Director of Safety Education at Iowa State Teachers College, 
Henry A. White of the Lockport High School, Lockport, Illinois, Alexander Hamilton, former 
instructor of driver training at Shenandoah High School, Shenandoah, Iowa, Julius Uhlaner 
A. G-. 0., Department of Army, New York City, Hubert A. Sargent, Instructor of Driver Train- 
ing in the Des Moines Schools, Flavia Larson of Jefferson High School, Jefferson, Iowa, 
and Charles Edward Palmer, former driving instructor of Honolulu, Hawaii. 

A great deal of help has also been obtained from the Department of Public Instruction 
in Iowa, the Education Division of the Department of Public Safety in Iowa, the Iowa State 
Safety Council, and numerous commercial organizations who have contributed many sugges- 
tions through pamphlets and other teaching materials, aids, and devices. 

More recently we have drawn from materials prepared by the Center for Safety Educa- 
tion at New York University and the Commission for Safety Education of the National Educa- 
tion Association, Washington, D. C. 

A great deal of credit should also be given my colleagues, Professor R. A. Moyer 
formerly of the Department of Civil Engineering, and Dr. H. V. Gaskill, Dean of the Divi- 
sion of Science for valuable help in many technical and administrative problems. 



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n. INTRODUCTION 

Driver-training has become a highly specialized procedure, and is not to he confused 
with the ordinary hapazard methods of incidentally learning to "herd" a motor vehicle. 
Everything taught by trained instructors has a specific reason- -backed up by reports of 
countless fatalities resulting from improper habits --and should be carried out precisely 
as described. There is ample room for each instructor with imagination to extend the 
training and make it more interesting, at the same time staying with the outline and funda- 
mental points given in this Manual. It is intended for use aB a guide both to instructors 
and to learners . 

A driver training course may vary from a total of something under twenty clock-hours 
of instruction to perhaps fifty to one hundred clock-hours of instruction. The same order 
of procedure may be used for any reasonable length of course. It could easily be expanded 
to any number of hours of instruction by elaborating the assignment to give more practice 
in each of the fundamental operations. Our experience leads us to adopt the order of 
presentation given. There are certain things which must be mastered before others can be 
undertaken, such as proper manipulation of the controls before one can learn to park. 
Likewise, it is precarious to take students out for road driving before they can turn 
corners, place the car properly and maneuver with confidence. 

There are certain minimum essentials which every driver must know if, and when, he is 
given full charge and responsibility for operating a motor vehicle. These include matters 
pertaining to the care of tires, radiator, lubrication, the electrical system, gasoline 
economy, smooth operation, insurance, accident reporting, road laws and traffic ordinances, 
and general operation of the car. We have found it expedient to group these items together 
logically and present a part of each one at the beginning of the driving period into which 
it best fits. Every learner is expected to master these minimum essentials. They are 
points which often mean the difference between safe and unsafe operation of a motor vehicle. 
The instructor prepares a short outline to cover about twenty minutes of discussion during 
which the various items are systematically presented and explained. They are too impor- 
tant to be left to chance learning or to incidental learning by the beginner. 

It has been difficult to obtain text-book materials which dovetail into the order of 
presentation. Consequently, the assignments have been chosen from selected sources and 
are the best that can be obtained. The plan is to have students read the references given 
in the assignments in order to broaden their interest in good driving and the philosophy of 
safety education. They are checked up by short periodical examinations and questioned on 
each assignment for a limited time according to an assigned schedule. 

There are two important points .which need to be stressed. Learners are inclined to 
appreciate the practice more than the theory, and the road driving more than exercises on 
the field. From the standpoint of economy of instruction, we find this order should be 
reversed, or at least the importance of the two properly equated. Those instructors whose 
students eventually become the most skillful and safest drivers put greatest emphasis on: 

A. The theory of driving brought out In reading. 

B. Mastering of the field exercises designed to develop skill in handling the car 
in a close situation. 

C. The development of proper attitudes in driving. 

If these phases of training are properly carried out and developed road driving usual- 
ly comes easily. Both learners and instructors should orient themselves to this point of 
view at the beginning of the course. It means reading the assignments in advance of the 
lesson and studying newspapers, magazine articles, accident reports, personal experiences 
and anything else which may help one get a broader perspective of driving. This accom- 
plishment seems to bring greatest satisfaction to everyone concerned, over the period of 
tiias necessary to produce a mature driver. 



INTRODUCTION 



The fundamental aim of this Manual is to make each learner a much "better and safer 
driver during the first five or ten years of his driving period rather than to merely 
coach him up in order to pass the driver's license examination since most persons could 
accomplish the latter without much help. It is the record the learner establishes over 
the first five years that counts. 

USE OF THE MANUAL AS A BASIC TEXT 

This volume is very condensed and may he elaborated as a basic text for advance work 
in driver training for teacher training courses. For beginners only the rudiments of 
driving are stressed but there is no limit to the extent of elaboration that might be made 
for advanced students of driving. In such instances its use should be supplemented with 
wide readings from standard reference sources as well as the periodic literature on the 
subject. 



III. GENERAL OBJECTIVES 
OF A TYPICAL COURSE AND A DISCUSSION 
OF VARIOUS METHODS OF TEACHING DRIVING 

A. The general objectives to "be attained by instruction in actual driving are set forth as 
follows : 

1. To develop the fundamental and correct skills necessary for proper manipulation of 
an automobile. 

2. To develop confidence, self-possession, and poise while at the wheel by clearly 
analyzing each operation in order to establish clearly in mind the principles of 
safe driving. 

3. To develop an appreciation of the need for good driving, skillful control of the car 
and courtesy at all times while at the wheel of a motor vehicle. ' 

h. Ultimately, to reduce accidental deaths on the streets and highway and to make motor- 
ing a safe recreation for everyone, and means of transportation. 

B. It is, of course, true that one may fulfill most of these objectives and yet not be a 
safe driver. They are, however, the first fundamentals in manipulation which can be 
learned by the average adolescent or adult and which will make his driving a little 
easier for him, an accomplishment of which he is proud. In addition, the driver must 
have : 

1. A desire to learn to drive safely for his own protection as well as for that of 
others . 

2. A knowledge of the road laws and local regulations in the state where he is licensed 
and at least be familiar with the commonly accepted traffic regulations of other 
states . 

3. A knowledge and sympathetic understanding of traffic regulations and how the latter 
promote safety. 

k. An appreciation of the enormous power of the modern automobile and its potentiali- 
ties for good or for harm. 

5. A knowledge of his own limitations and how they may affect his driving. 

6. An understanding of, and a desire to compensate for his weaknesses or deficiencies. 

C. These achievements imply a knowledge of traffic signs, familiarity with the locale an 
appreciation of danger situations and a desire to cooperate with others either in'an 
automobile, or otherwise. 

The exact means of accomplishing the desired results is somewhat arbitrary. Some may 
attain it one way, others another. That an instructional program will shorten the process 
is almost axiomatic. Any highly developed skill, attitude, or functional knowledge rarely 
reaches a very high state of perfection without the aid of helpful and constructive criti- 
cism on the part of someone who tactily or otherwise acts as an instructor or coach. This 
is true for three reasons: 

1. One never sees his actions as others see them. 

2. The learner often does not understand the difficulties he is trying to overcome. 

3. Man is given to an over-evaluation of his own ideas. 

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GENERAL OBJECTIVES 



D. The various methods which have "been used throughout the United States to "bring about 
sportsmanlike driving may he described as follows: 

1. The haphazard or trial -and-error method. Most persons learn to drive in any way 
they can, and few ever reach a high state of mastery in driving an automobile. They 
"learn by ear" as an untutored musician, and will face the same disappointments and 
embarrassments in the symphony of traffic that the "ear-fiddler" would have in at- 
tempting to play with a symphony orchestra. 

2. A method of vicarious experiencing in which the learner views pictures, hears lec- 
tures, and otherwise is instructed in what he should do and what he should not do. 
Negative instruction is avoided as much as possible and the learner is taught only 
what he should do. This may or may not be pedagogically sound, depending upon the 
nature of the function being learned. There are times in driving when one must know 
what not to do. 

3. A certain amount of classroom instruction, supplemented by actual practice in driv- 
ing on the highway or on a training area designed for the purpose. 

U. By classroom instruction in the basic principles, laboratory practice on the funda- 
mentals of skill, and finally by actual driving on a small course in limited traffic. 

That all these except Method 1 have their strong points is beyond question. It depends 
upon local conditions which are most practical in the actual learning situation. One can 
imagine any combination of methods as suggested above, so far as time requirements and 
location of instruction areas are concerned, let us examine a few of the supporting argu- 
ments for the various methods. Nothing can be said for Method 1 except that it is waste- 
ful and inefficient; in fact, not a method at all. 

Method 2 is economical. There may be no place to train drivers, no facilities to make 
road practice possible, and it is feasible to cover the same units of instruction by class- 
room methods. There is no risk to the student or the teacher and few additional obligations 
for the school. It may not be adequate, but it is all that can be done. These arguments 
are all sound except the last one. Actually, it probably represents all that the school 
system may be willing to do. The fact is that high schools from a mere handful of students 
to those enrolling thousands do more. Where there is a will or desire there will be found 
a means or way of accomplishment. 

Method ^ employs classroom instruction but is also supplemented by actual practice in the 
function to be learned. No pianist ever learned piano without an instrument. No golf 
player ever received much recognition for his achievement by studying books, attending 
lectures on golf-playing or by listening to anecdotes on golf while sitting around the 
clubhouse hearth. All these incidental things are necessary but represent the auxiliary 
rather than the essential motor activities in learning a skill. In the car is the place 
to learn driving . Let it be on a restricted area, if necessary, but get the learner im- 
mediately to the car. It will develop confidence and stimulate interest. This method 
emphasizes the need for dual-control cars for beginners. 

These arguments are all psychologically sound but practically may not always be feasible. 
At least this is true so far as time allotments and schedules make the method expedient. 
In general, it represents a method combining individual and group instruction. 

Method k involves three stages: (a) classroom instruction or vicarious experience, (b) 
laboratory practice in "dummy cars" using standard controls, and (c) actual practice be- 
hind the wheel of an automobile. Again there are considerable possibilities for variation 
in the exact procedure. The laboratory may be observational only or it may involve actual 
manipulation of car controls. The controls may be limited to the steering wheel and shift- 
ing devices or they may include clutch, brake, accelerator, observation of signs, signals, 
etc. The actual driving experience may be subsequently given with or without any form of 
dual controls in the car. This driving experience is usually given on a special field, 
isolated driving course, or in regular traffic. 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY • 



Wisdom dictates several precautions to be observed when using the latter method. Either 
the ^ groundwork must be very complete and the driving course made free from danger by col- 
lision with fixed or moving objects, or else there must be a preliminary period of train- 
ing in a dual-control car with very careful supervision before traffic is encountered 
The importance of avoiding any kind of accident is paramount for two reasons: (a) no 'one 
should be injured in any way by training devices, which is axiomatic, and (b) the learner 
must not lose confidence in himself by being allowed to fail or become involved in a mis- 
hap or highly unsuccessful experience. 

The various methods described are presented as they are now being used throughout the coun- 
try and without bias on the part of the evaluator. Those favoring the immediate use of the 
automobile in a driving course have many points in their favor so far as learning experi- 
ments may be relied upon. One learns by doing and learns what he does. However because 
of expense, risk, and time required, there may be some merit in learning the controls in 
the laboratory and then completing the instruction in a regular car. 

The instructor should familiarize himself with the distinctions made here as early as pos- 
sible. The following Units are offered as a combination of certain adaptations from the 
various methods of Instruction, but are largely a modification or adaptation of Methods 3 
and k. — 



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IV. HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL 



A. The outline schedule of assignments for use of instructors and learners is to he fol- 
lowed consistently and according to a regular time allotment plan. 

B. Instructors . Use the Manual as a guide to subject matter for each assignment. Stay 
with this schedule. At each period explain to the students any questions given at the 
end of the lesson which they could not answer from readings. 

C. Learners. Use the Manual as a basis for developing a thorough understanding of driving. 
Cover the questions at the end of each chapter in your text and Manual, since examina - 
tions will be based upon them and the assignments . Ask instructor to explain anything 
you don't understand . The more you know about your car, the better and safer driver 
you will become. The assignments do not always cover the same points that your instruc- 
tor will discuss with you. They are intended to supplement your classwork and instruc- 
tion. The perforated sheets are to be carefully worked out and handed to the instructor 
at the end of each unit. 

D. The Appendix contains additional tests, check forms, questions, and information which 
may come up in a driver's license examination. It should be carefully studied by each 
learner and instructor early in the course. 



-7- 



V. CLASSIFICATION OF DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES 
IN A TYPICAL DRIVER TRAINING SITUATION 

A careful division of labor and assignment of responsibility usually helps to simplify 
any system of instruction. Since this type of instruction is still in the novel stage this 
section is inserted as a guide to administrators, supervisors, instructors, and students. 
If each person concerned will study this section carefully he will know exactly what is 
expected of him or her and the greatest efficiency secured. 

A. Abbreviated outline of duties and obligations of the supervisor. 

1. Before course begins. 

a. Arrange for instructors, supplies, and conditioning of the car. 

b. Set time for first organization meeting at beginning of each session. At this 
time, call together all who have applied for the course and explain the plan and 
details as to: 

(1) Fees and their payment. 

(2) Organization of groups - Assign each to a group of 3 or k. 

(3) Texts used. 

(k) Credit and non-credit status. 

(5) Plan of instruction. 

(6) Need for permit to drive on the road. Distribute state manuals of road laws. 

(7) Set time for next meeting to verify all assignments. 

(8) Hand out assignment sheets and materials. 

c. Second organization meeting is called as scheduled to: 

(l) Complete partially organized groups. 
' (2) Make necessary shifts to balance groups. 

(3) Give out assignment sheets and any other materials on hand to anyone present 

for the first time. 
(k) Explain a second time about payment of fees. 

(5) Clarify the instructions as to meeting place, hours, time in the car, at the 
wheel, etc. 

(6) Give or provide first lecture. Films may be used if available. 

(7) Make arrangements for regular group meeting in cases where it is needed. 

2. During the course. 

a. See that all groups report as scheduled, that instructors are properly prepared 
and understand the necessary routine. Also check first week for balancing of 
groups, reassignments, etc. 

b. See that all get to the laboratory, have tests completed and give interpretation 
of each learner's record. 

c. Check to see that schedules are followed and that instructor-learner relation- 
ships are compatable. 

d. Make arrangements for any make-up or special work in car. 

e. Schedule or arrange a road driving experience for each group to be supervised by 
a staff member. 

f. List all potential graduates and get list for certificates about the sixth week 
of the session. 

g. Arrange for scheduling of State Examiner, and of learners for examination. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DUTIES 



3. At end of course. 

a. Hold final group meeting for testing and instructional purposes ahout the last 
week of the session. 

t>. Supervise personally the driver's license examination and entertain the examining 
officer in cases where such arrangements are made. 

c. See that all certificates are given out and reports are handed hack. 

d. Assign final grades. 

B. Abbreviated schedule of ohligations for head instructor in addition to those listed 
for regular instructor. 

1. See that all instructors meet classes at scheduled place. 

2. See that records are complete and are kept up-to-date. 

3. Check car for gas, oil, water, or antifreeze, tires and mechanical condition three 
times a week. Make report to course administrator when repairs or supplies are 
needed. 

k. Plan to post a makeup schedule in room assigned as headquarters. Have space for 
temporary entries. 

5. See that ex ami nation forms are availahle to all instructors. 

6. Check to see that all tests are given on time and as planned. 

7. Arrange for periodic development of new examinations. 

8. Confer with supervisor at least once a week on any other matters which need atten- 
tion. 

C. Abbreviated outline of duties and ohligations of instructors. 

1. Before the course "begins . 

a. There are two organization meetings at the "beginning of each quarter. You should 
report to these meetings to assist in organizing groups. Your schedule is needed 
at this time . Applicants are assigned to groups and are given copies of the state 
motor vehicle laws. 

2. During the course. 

a. Meet your group at the time assigned at the designated location. Take care of 
the following routine "before "beginning your classwork. 

(1) See that everyone has filled out an Enrollment Record Card and Clinical Form. 

(2) Give each student an assignment sheet. 

(3) See that each has a copy of the state motor code. 

(k) Explain that classes will he made up of those who have taken care of fees and 
if anyone has not done so he should see the husiness office. 

(5) Explain ahout the Manual and texts which are used. Ask the learners to pro- 
vide the required materials "before the next period and to read over Unit One 
and Two in Section XI. Special attention should he given to the pages in 
small print "by "beginners. 



10 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



(6) Explain the "basis of credit and enrollment. 

(7) Proceed to cutaway car and cover regular assignment as scheduled in Unit One. 
Make sure students understand where the group meets at the second period. 

"b. Plan to get your drivers through the driving tests used as early as possible. 
This should he done by the fourth period at the latest. 

c. Give quizzes and follow the schedule carefully. Keep record cards up-to-date and 
in the stated location. 

d. Complete Rogers-Lauer Scale (See Appendix) for each learner before the fourth 
period. File in same place as cards. 

e. Before midterm see that credit students have started their term papers or scrap 
hooks and are keeping systematic notes on lectures and readings. The latter are 
to he kept on the pages of the Manual which are perforated. 

f. Have all register for license examination at the end of the course. 
3. At end of course. 

a. Be sure your Record Cards and Clinical Forms are complete as to: 

(1) Attendance. 

(2) Ratings - both sides filled out. 

(3) All examinations taken. 

(h) Your signature attached to each. 

(5) Your notations as to performance of driver. 

(6) The grade you assign for classwork. (See Appendix B) 

b. Get a report of the result of the driver's license examination for each examinee 
you trained. This is for your own use. Check with supervisor to explain any 
unusual results. 

D. Outline of duties and obligations of learners. 

1. Before course begins. 

a. Attend both organization meetings. (These are a part of the course of instruc- 
tion. ) 

b. Pay fee at business office. 

c. Provide yourself with the Manual and any necessary materials at the book store. 

d. Read the first two assignments. 

e. Be certain of group assignments and appear as scheduled. 

f. Secure assignment sheet and begin study of state manual of road laws. 

2. During the course. 

a. Prepare all assignments in advance of lesson. Answer questions not well under- 
stood after taking them up in class with your instructor. 

b. Get permit by end of fifth period. 

c. Keep notes on lectures. Credit students are to report their progress to super- 
visor before midterm. 



CLASSIFICATION OF DUTIES 11 



d. Take all quizzes given. Copy Clinical Form results (See Appendix) in your Manual. 

e. Attend final group meeting for tests and sign up on the schedule for license ex- 
amination. All notebook work and reports are due at this time. 

3. At end of course. 

a. Take license examination. (Optional for out-of-state students.) Return to office 
and pay license fee. Receipt is good as license and should "be' carried at all 
times . 

"b. Get certificate given by State by calling at office if such has not been already 
obtained. 

c. Return for scrap books and materials handed in at end of quarter not later than 
the second week of the following quarter. Keep it for further reference. 



m* 



VI. SPECIFIC PRECAUTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR 
PROTECTION OF DUAL-CONTROL TRAINING CARS 

A. The following points are very important and all instructors will observe them. It is 
often difficult, due to the ability to secure parts and to have repairs made on some 
motor vehicles. All instructors are to see that the following precautions are rigidly 
observed: 

1. The car should be obtained and left each time according to arrangements made. Keys 
should be returned to headquarters or otherwise as arranged. 

2. Instructor records mileage, gasoline level, and any condition of the car which needs 
attention before and after each period of instruction. (See form in glove compartment 
of car.) These data are needed for school and other reports. 

3. Tires should be checked regularly for inflation and other conditions of tread or 
wearing surface noted as part of the instruction. The car should not be moved until 
tires are checked each time. 

k. Extreme care should be exercised relative to the car in general. Smoking is not to 

be indulged in while in the car or on the practice grounds. The finish and interior 

are to be carefully used to prevent damage as some training cars are loaned by cour- 
tesy of the automotive industry. 

5. Smooth operation of the car is to be stressed at all times. It saves both car and 
passengers. Use a milk bottle or Jerk recorder on the floor as an objective check. 

6. Keep the clock set and divide time equally between members of the class. Call their 
attention to this and ask them to help watch the time. 

7. Be sure both hand brakes are released each time the car is placed in motion. Full 
dual-control cars have two hand brakes. 

8. Do not allow learners to pull up on horn rings, twist signal lights on fender or 
otherwise unnecessarily and carelessly manipulate any controls or auxiliary equipment 
of car. 

9. Never allow learners or others to slam or "ride" the doors. Opening doors too wide 
may also spring them. Modern car doors will close tightly if gently pushed shut. 
Racing the motor and slamming doors are discourteous and needless in driving and 
are considered very bad taste. 

10. In no case should instructors allow parts of the car or tires to touch stanchions or 
guides used for training. Drive slowly enough at first to avoid this. In actual 
driving a contact may mean a new fender. When in a close place have student "inch" 
along by slipping clutch slightly. 

11. Instructors only are to drive car from garage and to return it themselves. No 
learner or unauthorized person is to perform this function. 

12. Water and fluid levels in radiator are to be watched carefully. The temperature 
gauge must be carefully observed in summer. In winter care must be taken to replen- 
ish any alcohol boiled out. It is best to use ethylene glycol compounds for training 
cars as slow driving causes heating. 

13. The instructor is to see that windshield and all windows and mirrors are clear at 
all times. A cloth should be available in the car and learner should be asked to 
attend to this whenever needed as a part of the training. 

-12- 



DUAL-CONTROL TRAINING CARS 



13 



Ik. In no case should the car "be taken off the practice field unless authorized. Regu- 
lar staff members will go along when road practice is given. 

15. Do not allow students to hit bumps, ditches, curbs, or anything which would damage 
tires or endanger springs. 

16. In no case should the instructor leave the car without taking the key with him. 
Your student may drive away and leave you greatly embarrassed. 




Full Dual-Control Car 
Used for road training (Courtesy Studebaker) 




Practical Aspects of Training Stressed 



VII. PRINCIPLES FOR SAFETY AND EFFICIENT TEACHING 

A. Points to be observed at all times on the driving course and to be enforced by the in- 
structor . 

1. Stress the importance of reading the instruction books and text used. Your job as 
an instructor will be much easier and more efficient. The learner must know his 
road laws well to obtain a license or permit which is given only by a state officer 
or deputy. 

2. Insist on proper position of learner at the wheel at all times. Correct improper 
positions carefully. Do not allow them to wrap thumb around rim of wheel or allow 
the wheel to slide through the hands when turning. 

3. Instructors must develop independence of the student. Use the dual-controls only 
for demonstration or for emergencies. 

k. The instructor is to stay at the wheel at all times unless he removes key from the 
ignition. Students are to make changes in positions when taking turns at driving 
by getting out and going around car when necessary. 

5. All learners are to stay with the assigned group in the car during the entire in- 
struction period. Any exceptions will be authorized only by the supervisor. A great 
deal is learned by observing the instruction of others. 

6. Wot more than two should ride in the front seat and no more than three in the back 
seat at any one time during period of instruction except when necessary for four to 
ride in back seat during final observation by regular staff member. 

7. Insist on precision in all performances taught. Especial care must be taken not to 
cut corners or swing wide. State examiners are very cranky about this matter. 

8. Keep the signs and guides on the test field up and in position at all times during 
the period of instruction. 

9. Do not use accelerator or feed gas when backing. Also have trainee steer with left 
hand and look back over the seat to get a broad view when backing. Keep feet at 
brake and clutch for quick stop. 

10. Insist on hand signals at all times when turning or stopping, or when changing 
lanes. This is imperative if the learner is to get a license. 

11. Have the learner practice manipulation of the controls blindfolded. He should learn 
to do this by touch as he will need to keep nis attention ahead and around him for 
safety in driving. 

12. Slow down before turning corners. 

13. Learning to drive correctly is serious business. There should be no bantering in 
car or joking those who are practicing at the wheel. 

Ik. Children and unauthorized persons are to stay off the driving course at all t ime s. 
Learners should never run across lanes when cars are near or approaching. 

15. Stay away from the front or rear of the car at all times unless being instructed at 
the time and the car is standing still. 

-1^- 



PRINCIPLES AND REGULATIONS 15 

16. In no case should anyone ride on the running board or fenders. Wo exceptions are to 
"be tolerated. 

17. Safety first must be practiced at all times. If it's dangerous to anyone or to any 
part of the car, don't do it. 



VIII. POINTS ON WHICH ONE IS JUDGED AS A SAFE DRIVER 

A. Good drivers will observe the following practices very carefully: 

1. Proper position at wheel with hands at 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock or k o'clock. 
Neither anxious, cramped, or slouchy. Keep both hands on the wheel at all times ex- 
cept when shifting gears or signaling. 

2. Drive at the same rate of speed as the main stream of traffic. To drive faster or 
slower creates hazards from passing. 

3. Strict observance of all markers and signals. 

k. Keep sufficient space "between cars in traffic flow. 

5. Start and stop smoothly —like a streamline train. 

6. Slow down before taking corners. It may be necessary to shift to a lower gear. 

7. Observe at intersections by turning head to right and then to left. Eyes do not see 
as you move them. 

8. Keep on proper side of road or pavement. 

9. Pass only when roadway is clear ahead and view is not obstructed. 

10. Keep motor running quietly without undue racing when idling. 

11. Keep foot brake on when standing to prevent rolling backward or forward. Apply 
foot brake immediately when stopping and shift into neutral immediately. 

12. Keep the fenders free from dents and damages of any kind. Also the condition of 
tires, bumpers, and grill are indicators of driving skill. Be careful not to touch 
stanchions and you will hot damage your own car later from contact with cars or fixed 
objects . 

13. Use the horn sparingly and delicately, only to warn pedestrians or motorists who do 
not see you. 

Ik. Move in a straight line and do not weave around in traffic. Give hand signals when 
changing lanes . 

15. Avoid unnecessary hazards in driving by staying clear of congested traffic whenever 
possible. This may mean planning a route in advance and varying your speed to con- 
form with stop-light timing, pedestrian movement, and other conditions known to 
exist at certain times of the day. 

16. Get into the proper lane before turning. 

17. Keep in the proper lane while turning. It is best never to cut a traffic lane as 
this creates a potential hazard. 

18. Show courtesy to other cars and pedestrians by yielding the right of way, and give 
appearance of driving leisurely. The nervous or varying-speed driver is often in- 
correctly considered the fast driver. He may not make good time on the road at all. 

19. Keep towards center of street in the city where cars are parked but well at the side 
when driving on a country road. 

-16- 



EXERCISES IN THE CAR 17 



20. Always park the car properly and in the right place to avoid contact with passing 
vehicles . 

21. Move very slowly when getting in or out of a close place. This may he accomplished 
"by slipping clutch slightly to give the idling motor an advantage. 

22. Keep the eyes on the road at all times and handle controls "by touch. 

23. Check the car regularly and see that gasoline, oil, water, and air pressure are what 
they should he. It is unsafe to drive a car with oil and gas low as hazards are 
created "by stalled cars. 

2k. Back car with feet at hrake and clutch without touching the accelerator. Look over 
seat to right and turn far enough to see out of all three hack windows. Arm should 
he on the hack of the seat. 

25. Allow motor to hrake car whenever possible to save "brakes from undue wear. In some 
states it is illegal to coast down hill. 

26. Drive defensively and never take anything for granted regarding the other driver. 



IX. EXERCISES FOR DEVELOPING SKILL AT THE WHEEL WHICH 
HELP TO MAKE A GOOD DRIVER AND SHOULD BE INTRODUCED IN THE 
FOLLOWING ORDER BY THE INSTRUCTOR 

A. Each instructor should follow schedule carefully and give all learners practice in these 
fundamentals. If mastered well there will he no difficulty in traffic driving. 

1. The six steps in starting. Given the first day, there is to he no variation from 
this procedure as it is hasic. Position and method of holding wheel to he empha- 
sized. 

2. A quick routine check-up of the car each time a class takes over. This hahit should 
he carefully estahlished with all learners. 

3. Proper use of clutch and with particular emphasis on the power-point. The first 
lessons should involve a maximum of stopping and starting. This will necessitate 
shifting from one gear to another which should also he carefully taught using the 
letter "E" system. Teach learner to handle lever lightly hut shift precisely. 

k. Emphasize the importance of efficient shifting. Review the letter "H" concept and 
show how it is the same whether on the floor or on the steering wheel. Teach the 
learner to use palm down over shifting knoh when shift lever is on the steering 
wheel. Hold lever lightly "between thumb and first two fingers. We recommend that 
strict uniformity he stressed in this practice. 

5. Teach the correct method of holding the wheel- -either at 10 and 2 o'clock or at 

10 and k o'clock. Be sure the hand-over-hand method is used when turning. Empha- 
size the importance of straightening up after turning. Warn against over-steering 
which leads to wandering on the road. 

6. Turning corners is often hadly taught. The most important items are: (a) slow down 
"before turning, and (h) keep in the proper lane, and (c) give hand signals. Wide 
turns and cutting of corners are "both equally tad. Some drivers are lazy at the 
wheel. They do not turn fast enough at corners, hut they often drive too fast. 
Reverse these practices. 

7. Give plenty of practice on line driving. Call attention to the reason for this 
exercise, A driver must he ahle to put his wheels where they should he on the road- 
way. Drive "both forward and "backward, first with left wheel on the line, then with 
the right wheel on the line. Where a line cannot he laid down, old tires may he 
laid tangent to a line and ahout 15 to 20 feet apart. 

8. Teach the accepted method of hacking: feet at hrake and pedal with hody turned to 
right and right hand laid on hack of seat. Do not feed gas when hacking. 

9. Forward and "backward through the zig-zag stanchions is a most important exercise. 
It paves the way for parallel and angular parking. 

10. Forward and "backward driving through the offset stanchions is somewhat more diffi- 
cult. If student is weak in this respect, improvise some special exercises with 
stanchions. Consult supervisor for suggestions. 

11. Driving on a curved line hoth forwards and "backwards should he practiced. Left 
wheel on line first then right wheel on line. This is much more difficult than 
driving on a straight line. 

12. Practice of the nose -down hefore a crosswalk. This is very essential and learners 
should he warned that brakes are not the same on all cars. Driving past the stop- 
ping point or line should not he tolerated. 

-18- 



POINTS JUDGED 19 



13. Accepted methods of parallel parking should "be taught and practiced carefully step 
by step. The steps should "be outlined on the "blackhoard "before getting into the car. 

Ik. Accepted methods of angular parking should "be taught and practiced carefully step "by 
step. 

15. Starting on a hill is a very essential operation and in many cities and towns no one 
is given a license who does not show proficiency in this operation. 

16. Explain or demonstrate traffic circles, and how they are used by referring to models 
or diagrams on the "blackboard. The Stoner Traffic Board is invaluable. (See Appen- 
dix) 

17. Explain or demonstrate clover-leaf intersections and explain the theory back of their 
construction and use. 

18. Observation of all signs and signals at all times should be emphasized. Carelessness 
on the part of the instructor may cause the learner to fail his license examination 
or, even much more seriously, to become involved in an accident. 

19. The group in the car should be watching the one who is driving at all times. They 
learn by observing. 

20. The instructor should constantly be on the alert to show why certain practices are 
safer than others. His experience, zeal, and skill in this respect is the chief 
value he has as an instructor. 

21. Verbalized instructions are to be gradually decreased as the learner progresses. 
Use a proper balance between demonstrating and letting the learner correct his own 
mistakes. 



X. TYPICAL ASSIGNMENTS FOR DRIVER TRAINING GROUPS 

Reference Books: (a) Sportsmanlike Driving. (h) Man and the Motor Car. Use either hook 
availahle. The Manual may also he used as a hasic text with ahove and other references. 

Your Instructor:__ Hour of M eeting:_ 



Assignment for use with Dual-Control Car. Course to include at least 15 hours of in- 
struction in the car and in class. Each learner will need a notebook The Manual and 
access to the reference texts. Ask for other printed matter in the office of the' super- 
visor or in the reserve lihrary. Assignments in 19A8 editions of texts. 

2Si* Date Assignment 

1 - Study of C utaway C a r and Care of Motor . Manual Sections I-X Sports- 
manlike Driving, pages 198-231, Chapters I and II and XII; Man and the 
Motor Car, pages 1-19. 

2 - Care of Radiator. Manual, Sections XI - One, also Appendix; Sports- 
manlike Driving, pages 2J2-250, and Chapters III IV, and V; Man and 
the Motor Car, pages k6-6k. 

3- Care of Tires. Manual, Sections XI - Two. Sportsmanlike Driving 

pages 133-1^9, 2^5-246 and 319-320 and Chapter III, IV XVII and XIX; 
Man and the Motor Car, pages 20—1+5. 

k* Care of Finish on Car and Care of Brakes . Manual, Section XI - Three; 

Sportsmanlike Driving, pages 80-110 and Chapters V, VI and XV; Man and 
the Motor Car pages 66-95. Short examination. 

5 - luhricatio n of Car . Manual, Section XI - Four. Sportsmanlike Driving 

pages 255-267 and Chapters VII, VIII, and IX; Man and the Motor Car ' 
pages 96-IO8. ' 

6 - The Light ing System . Manual, Section XI - Five. Sportsmanlike Driving 

pages 281-282, 260-265, 269, 330-45^ and Chapters X, XI, and XIX; Man ' 
and the Motor Car, pages 98-120. 

7 - Care of Interior . Manual, Section XI - Six. Sportsmanlike Driving 

pages 253-2614-, 366-371, and Chapters XI and XVI; Man and the Motor Car 
pages 122-139. Short examination. ' 

8 - Carefulness in Starting and Stopping in Relation to Safety . Manual 

Section XI - Seven. Sportsmanlike Driving, pages 265-268 and Chapters 
XV and XX; Man and the Motor Car, pages 11+0-162. 



9- Ahout Gasoline and Economy in Driving: Insurance . Manual, Section XI 

- Eight; Sportsmanlike Driving, pages 31^-427 and Chapters' VI and XXI; 
Man and the Motor Car, pages 187-226. 

10 - Code-Review and Emphasis on Essentials . Manual, Section XI - Wine and 

Ten; Sportsmanlike Driving, pages 398-455 and Chapters XVII, XVIII 
XXIII, and XXIV; Man and the Motor Car, pages 187-226. 

11. Driver's license examination. Read Man and the Motor Car 227-287 and Section XII 
carefully. 

12. Final examination on the course material including texts, Manual, and all phases of 
classwork. 

-20- 



SCHEDULE OF ASSIGNMENTS 21 

Note : This assignment sheet is typical of a practical course in driver training "based on 
ten years experience. It may lie modified to meet any particular situation. Read- 
ings may "be distributed over a greater period of time at the discretion of the in- 
structor. Since most text "books do not cover the material systematically as needed 
the references marked "by pages refer specifically to "behind -the -wheel manipulation 
while the "background readings are given "by chapters. 

If more than 20 periods can "be devoted to driver training it is suggested that about 
one fourth of the first part of the course "be given almost exclusively in the classroom and 
background material be covered thoroughly using the car only for class room demonstrations 
and for laboratory work preparatory to driving. In this way the students should be much 
better prepared to go into the car and make maximum progress. It should reduce the learn- 
ing period and effect greater economy and efficiency of instruction. 

Students would also be more highly motivated to master the background material aB 
they are always more interested in getting into the car than in studying the theory of 
safe driving. The highest motivation will probably be obtained by having the practical 
work integrated with and given in the same session as the theoretical material covered. 



YOUR FIRST STEPS IN LEARNING TO DRIVE 
(Student's introduction to Unit One) 

You are about to undertake one of the most interesting experiences you have ever teen 
privileged to enjoy--that of learning to drive a motor vehicle. It is necessary for you 
to extend your knowledge concerning four major categories in order to "become a safe driver; 
(1) yourself and your potentialities, (2) the automohile you will he driving as well as 
cars of other makes you will drive, (3) the road laws, including customs, ordinances and 
practices in driving, (k) the highway, street and traffic system over which you will drive. 

If you study carefully the texts and references given you will not only learn to drive 
more quickly and successfully, but you will get more pleasure out of driving later especial- 
ly when making long trips. One who knows little ahout a game will seldom enjoy playing it. 
The readings you will cover give background and explain the reasons for certain practices 
in the car. 

The exercises in the car are graded to give progressive development of driving skill. 

They are founded on established principles of safe operation of a motor vehicle. You are' 

urged to follow them carefully without deviation. There may be certain exceptions made 

later in the course, but at the present it will be necessary to follow the instructions 
literally in order to secure maximum progress. 

Before you can drive on the public highway in certain states it will be necessary to 
pass both a vision test and a written test on driving practices, traffic ordinances and 
laws. Therefore the first study periods of the course should be partly devoted to the 
state manual on traffic laws. 

Two other phases of driving need to be studied at the early part of the course. One 
has to do with the problems of automotive transportation and increased traffic on present 
day highways. This knowledge may be gleaned, in part, from assigned readings. The other 
phase is that pertaining to the automobile; namely, how it is built, and how it operates. 
Unless a machine is well understood it may lead some people to become nervous when trying 
to operate it. We tend to fear those things we do not understand thoroughly. Each person 
learning to drive should try to understand the working principles of an automobile. Be- 
sides reducing nervous tension it will also serve a useful purpose when on trips, 'only a 
slight knowledge of the working of a car may save needless delays and expense while driv- 
ing. 

One of the aims of a driving course should be to teach the proper care of the family 
automobile. This is very important since it represents the greatest single expenditure of 
a family outside the home itself. Many families find the total amount of money spent 
exceeds the cost and upkeep of a five or six-room home. Modern automobiles are well enough 
built to last 15-20 years and really look respectable if their owners would take the same 
care of them as they do of a new house. Unless the life of an automobile is lengthened, 
many families may be unable to own a car unless economic conditions change radically. 

While learning to drive, certain basic information on care of the automobile will be 
sandwiched into the course of instruction so that at the end of the course you should be 
able to take a new automobile and get along with little unnecessary expense either in 
operation or in damage due to accidents. Read your assignments carefully, answer the 
questions at the end of each unit and question your instructor concerning any points not 
clear. In this way you will not only be learning to drive safely, but also economically 
and enjoyably. 



-22- 



XI. COURSE OF INSTRUCTION 

The aim of the course is to cover as many points relating to safe and sane driving as 
possible. The assignments of reading do not always cover the same points as those taken up 
"by the instructor. This is done intentionally to cultivate scholarship and "breadth of 
knowledge on the part of learners . 

Each Unit may "be expanded to fit needs of the local situation. Each period may "be 
divided to include twenty minutes in class discussion of minimum essentials and seventy 
minutes in the car equally divided among the group of four persons. Other divisions of 
the period may "be made to fit local situations. Under certain conditions it -may "best to 
give the first periods of instruction to the whole group or class at one time. 

UNIT ONE 

Getting Acquainted With the Car 

As the title implies, the main idea in this Unit is to get the learner familiar with the 
car. It may he divided into several lessons, but taught as a unit. 

A. Objectives. 

1. To demonstrate the interior of the car and to show the various controls and gauges. 

2. To teach the correct position of a driver at the wheel. 

3. To teach and demonstrate essentials of the mechanism under the hood and conditions 
which may affect performance. 

h. To become familiar with the controls and shifting. 

B. Approaches. 

1. Actual inspection of a late model car and cutaway model of a car. 

2. Call attention to pictures and illustrations in pamphlets or text. 

3. various charts and slides used to illustrate points covered in the lesson. Film 
"Know Your Car" is very appropriate. See Appendix C. 

C. Procedure. 

1. Sitting at the wheel. Familiarize student with the various controls. 

a. Gauges on the dash. Give purpose and specific points on each. 

Gasoline gauge, temperature gauge, oil pressure gauge, ammeter, 
speedometer. 

b. Safety aids. Locate and show how they work. 

Headlights - switch; tail light - switch; rear view mirror, windshield 
wipers, sun visors, windshield defrosters, horn, proper seat adjustment, 
rear vision mirror, heater, etc. 

c. Starting devices. 

Ignition switch, starter switch, choke, and hand throttle in the car. 

d. Control devices. 

Steering wheel, clutch pedal, gear shift, accelerator, foot brake, hand 
brake . 

-23- 



2h 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 




Lane Technical High School 

Illustration (A) shows the instruc- 
tor giving basic instruction in use of 
brake, clutch, and shifting mechanisms. 
Each row of lights represents a dummy 
car as shown in (B). When a certain 
response is necessary the student re- 
acts and the reaction made is registered 
on the light board. In this way group 
instruction can easily be given. 

The next picture (B) shows a later 
stage where reactions are made to mo- 
tion picture presentations. The in- 
structor can readily check the proper 
response of individual students by ob- 
serving the control board. 

After these two phases of basic 
training the students are given cars 
and operate them on a miniature field 
under supervision. 

(See page 130 for training field 
used at Lane Technical High School.) 




UNIT ONE 25 



2. Under the hood. Use cutaway car, an old motor and chassis, or good charts. (See 
Elements of Automobile Mechanics "by Heitner, Shidle and Bissell) 

a. Engine proper. 

Block, carburetor, fan, pumps (water and fuel), ignition, distrihutor, 
spark plugs, the "shove" that is the "beginning of power, timing of 
spark gives perfect rhythm, strokes --crankshaft (See chart on intake, 
compression, power stroke, and exhaust stroke), cooling system (water, 
oil, and air) . 

"b. Chassis. 

Transmission - flywheel, clutch, and driving mechanism; differential 
gears and connection with drive shaft, drive pinion, ring gear, differ- 
ential pinion, and other gears, brakes (foot and hand), mechanical, 
hydraulic, electric, and other. Emphasize care of "brakes. 

D. Evaluation. 

1. Have students explain use, likely weakness, or something of importance concerning 
any 10 of the following items: 

a. Ammeter k. Ban "belt 

"b. Carburetor 1. Spark plugs 

c. Timer m. Ignition points 

d. Fuel pump n. Coil 

e. Battery o. Gear shift 

f. Radio p. Starting motor 

g. Lights q_. Generator 
h. Tires r. Radiator 
i . Oil level s . Brakes 

j. Water level t. Clutch 

2. Use 5 or more questions given under F for testing mastery of this section. Formulate 
them into objective form. 

E. References and reviews for notes. (Each student should keep a notebook.) 

1. Pages 198-232, Sportsmanlike Driving , and Chapters I, II and XII. 

2. Pages 1-19 in Man and the Motor Car . 

3. See list in Manual for additional selected reference readings. 

^. Copy of state motor code or manual. 

5. Start a scrap-book in the appendix of your notes for pamphlets, news clippings, 
editorials, cartoons, poems, or anything which will help you to realize danger 
situations and become more careful as you develop your skill as a driver. 

F. Questions on Unit One. To be answered by the learner and written up and entered in 
notes. Those questions not readily answered from reading are to be discussed in class 
by instructor. Write answers on back of sheets or insert pages. The exercises at end 
of Unit are to be written up and handed in to the instructor at the end of each Unit. 

1. Does electricity operate the gasoline gauge? 

2. Where will the temperature gauge stand when the motor is getting too hot? 

3. What does the temperature gauge normally read when driving in summer? In winter? 

h. Will the oil gauge show how much oil is in the crank case? 

5. Can one tell whether the battery is almost fully charged or discharged by the 
ammeter? 



26 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



6. Should the speedometer ever he oiled? By whom? 

7. Can the speedometer he set back? 

8. How is electricity measured? 

9. How many amperes do all the lights draw when turned on? 

10. How long would it take to run the battery down with all the lights turned on? 

11. If a generator charges^ 15 amperes, how long must it run to completely charge a 
battery which is down?' Assume 50 per cent efficiency of the battery and a battery 
of 120 ampere hours . 

12. Does the law require a car to have two tail lights? 

13. How many lights must a truck have on it? 

Ik. What is a sealed-beam light? Why is it better? Which is better, one of all glass 
or one with a metal back? Why? 

15. How should the rear vision mirror be adjusted? 

16. What is the sun visor for? 

17. Where is the defroster? How does it work? 

18. When should the horn be used? Check your state motor code. 

19. Can the front seat of most cars be adjusted? If it cannot be adjusted in some cars, 
what should the driver do? 

20. What two types of ignition control switch will one find on cars? 

21. Name 10 places a starter switch may be found. List in notes. 

22. Does the training car have a choke control on the dash? Why? 

23. How should one hold the steering wheel? 

2k. Should the clutch be released suddenly when starting the car? Give reasons in notes. 

25. Should the clutch be released suddenly when shifting from second to high? Why? 

26. Should one use accelerator when backing on the level? 

27. Should the foot brake be used without releasing clutch in slow traffic? Why? Is 
this true in road driving? Why? 

28. Why should hand brake be released last when starting? 

29. Draw a letter "H" and think through the gear shifts. How does this work when the 
shift is on the wheel? Do not look at movements made when shifting. ' 

30. What must one do to get a permit to drive? What must he know? 

31. Why is a permit necessary when at the wheel? 

32. Sketch out all hand signals in your notes. 



UNIT ONE 



27 



Instructor will explain cutaway car. Use and refer to Studebaker ABC "book, User.'s 
Guide or any standard reference book or auto mechanic's "book accessible to students. 



H. Exercises in the car on the driving field. Use a snail section of the field only. Ex- 
plain gauges, starting the motor, and use of the controls. Drive around field and 
cover essentials of using clutch and proper shifting. Explain hand signals. Have stu- 
dents start and stop repeatedly. No stanchions needed on the field. (See Appendix.) 
Keep the car moving as much as possible. 



28 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 




Checking the Car Headlights 



Although a driving course is in no sense a course in automotive 
mechanics, it is essential to know certain things about checking the 
car, making temporary adjustments, changing a tire, etc. Students of 
driving should be encouraged to visit garages and get first hand in- 
formation about such things as interpretation of car noises, lubrica- 
tion, controlling vapor locks, towing, etc. (See page 122 for special 
form to be used in checking cars.) 



UNIT ONE 



29 



Student's Report for Unit One 



Name. 



Date 



Hour of Class 



Section. 



Day. 



A Give answers to the following questions on assignment. Give reasons. (See F. above) 



3. 
k. 

10.. 

18.. 
20. 



21. (a). 

(a). 

(f)- 
(i). 

23 

26 

27 

28 



B. Sketch the following: 
1. Hand SignalB. 



(h) 



.(c) 



(e) 



.(g). 



(j) 



.00 



2. Clutch and power-point, 



C. Give six steps in starting the car. 



D. Describe any study, practice, or other experience you have done or had this week: 



Graded "by 



Grade assigned. 



*1 



f 3 



*- 



LEARNING TO CONTROL THE CAR 
(Student's introduction to Unit Two) 

Proper control of an automobile presupposes that it is in mechanical condition, and 
has ample gasoline, oil and water to keep it running. The battery must have sufficient 
charge; the ignition functioning properly and the carburetor accurately set. Furthermore 
the gauges should all he working, the seat properly adjusted so that you can sit comfort- 
ably and depress the pedals all the way to the floor. The rear vision mirror should be 
adjusted properly so you may see a car following you at any reasonable distance. Some 
drivers use side mirrors and these should also be set properly and cleaned of dust and 
dirt. The tires should be checked for proper inflation every time you step into the car. 
Make a habit of a quick routine check everytime you start on a trip, however short. The 
windshield should be cleaned of dust as a clear windshield aids in making glare from ap- 
proaching cars less annoying. 

Your next job is getting properly adjusted in the seat. Lean back in a comfortable 
position and hold the steering wheel at points 10 and 2, or 10 and k on the clock dial. 
You should hold the thumb parallel with the index finger to avoid danger to the thumb when 
the wheel makes a quick turn, which sometimes results when a wheel strikes a rut or hole 
in the road. When turning a corner use hand -over -hand technique . Keep a moderate hold on 
the wheel at all times with one or both hands. Holding the wheel with one hand reduces 
control about kO per cent. Never let the wheel slip through your hands . 

Having learned the elements of proper steering, you now proceed to the matter of start- 
ing the motor. The following steps, with a few modifications on certain cars, are standard 
and should be practiced by every driver. 

1. Depress clutch pedal far enough to completely release it. 

2. Check your gears for the neutral position in the middle or cross bar of the H. 
Electric and vacuum gear shifts may require some modification of this step. 

3. Turn on ignition. This may require two operations with cars having the ignition 
on the steering column. Ask your instructor for details. 

k. Actuate your starter. It may need to be pushed, pressed, depressed or otherwise, 
depending on the make and model of car. There are at least 10 ways of actuating 
the starter. Some cars start when the ignition key is turned. Others have the 
starter on the accelerator or clutch. One older make of car was started by lifting 
the horn button. 

5. Get your car into low or reverse depending on the direction you wish to move. 

6. Release the hand brake . Be sure you do the last operation as it will save you 
many anxious moments and much expense, should your hand brake wear and fail to 
hold. Occasionally this happens when a car is parked and it drifts off. Many 
such accidents occur which are wholly unwarranted if the hand brake is not worn 
unnecessarily. 

You are now ready to shift into low gear and practice maneuvering your car. When you 
let out the clutch to the power-point (where the pressure begins to decrease against your 
foot,) let the clutch slip slightly to make a smooth start. Make as many shifts, starts 
and stops as possible in your practice period. In the next lesson you will learn to shift 
through the gears in order to change speed. 

It is a splendid idea to test the pressure of your accelerator in order to determine 
just how fast the motor must be turning to start smoothly and gradually, without "killing" 
or stalling it. Racing the motor is always to be avoided. The former is a bad practice 
and the latter very poor taste. It will cause jerky starting and unnecessary wear on a 
cold motor. You must learn to start and stop smoothly like a streamliner and not jerky 
like a freight train. 

-31- 



32 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



To make a smooth stop requires firm "but controlled pressure on the "brake pedal. 
Remember to release your clutch before applying the "brake when driving slowly or you will 
stall your motor. At speeds higher than 25 miles an hour the reverse is true. Be sure 
you note the reversal . 

At this time it is well to concentrate on the care of the cooling system which is 
very important in the safe operation of an automobile. The motor may he ruined in a few 
miles of driving if the radiator "becomes empty, or if the cooling agent fails to circulate, 





Field of Vision 

(A) Careful studies of the magnitude of lateral field with the special 
perimeter shown above indicates that for practical purposes the slide-rule 
accuracy of simpler tests as shown in the hack of the manual will often serve 
quite as well and save considerable time. 



(B) The time necessary to make precision tests as shown in the perimeter 
described under (A) makes it impractical for certain purposes, although a 
quick test of movement determination in the lateral fields is desirable not 
only to determine the angles of discrimination, but also to suggest the need 
for careful observation at the sides at all times when driving. (Sc 
for simple tes t . ) 



See page 135 



UNIT TWO 

Learning to Start and Stop Smoothly 

One of the most important phases in learning to drive is that of starting. Another 
is proper stopping. Watch a streamliner and note how smoothly it starts and stops. Proper 
use of the clutch and feel of the power-point must he established. A decelerator is im- 
portant, hut if not available, use a jerk-meter or even a milk bottle set on the floor of 
the car. It should not upset in starting and stopping. 

A. Objectives. 

1. To develop the habit of always checking your car before driving. 

2. To give practice in the proper steps to be taken when starting the motor. 

3. To teach the proper steps in starting the car in low, through second and high gears. 
k. To teach the proper methods and skill in stopping the car. 

5. To teach the proper care and servicing of the radiator and the cooling system. 

B. Approach. 

1. Actual experience acquired by suitable instructions. Make check on smooth starting 
and stopping. 

2. Reference reading in booklets to obtain background. 

3. Studying parts of car and diagrams. 

C. Procedure - Verbalize the action or function to be performed first, then practice. 

1. Have each learner first tell the order of procedure, then execute without looking 
at the controls, each of the following operations: 

a. Starting the motor. 

b. Review steps in shifting the gears, starting and stopping. 

c. Shift into low. Accelerate slowly, drive twice the length of the car 
and then stop smoothly. Restart the car and proceed. 

d. Shift into second. Accelerate gradually and smoothly until the car is 
moving fast enough to shift to high within a distance of 50 or 100 feet. 

2. Check each of the following: 

a. Gas, oil, water, and tire inflation. 

b. Practice and review steps in starting the motor. 

c. Practice starting the car after motor is running. 

D. Evaluations. 

1. Review questions at the end of this Unit. 

2. Let students check each other by asking questions and answering them. 

3. Use milk bottle check for starting and stopping smoothly. Let no one kill the 
motor. Instructor explains use of decelerometer or tumbling cylinders. 

E. References and review on notes. 

1. Pages 232-250, Sportsmanlike Driving , and Chapters III, IV, and V. 

-33- 



^ 



3U LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

2. Pages I+6-65, Man and the Motor Car . 

3. Problems and activities assigned "by instructor as needed. 
k. See list at end of Manual for further references. 

F. Questions on Unit Two. 

1. How many quarts of oil will most 6-cylinder cars hold? 

2. How much air should be kept in tires? 

3. How often should inflation of tires "be inspected? 

h. What is meant "by camber of the front wheels? Caster? Toe-in? 

5. What causes cupping of tires? 

6. What are brakes lined with? 

7. What are hydraulic brakes? 

8. Where is the master-cylinder on hydraulic brakes? 

9. What would happen if a fluid line springs a leak to the right rear brake? 

10. Name three anti-freeze solutions and give two or three good and bad points of 
each, (in notes) 

11. How can you tell if the fluid in the radiator is low? 

12. What would you use to clean a radiator? 

13. Why should cold water not be poured into a hot motor suddenly? 
ll+. Show a plan for regularly rotating the tires. 

15. How often should tires be rotated? 

16. How can one injure a tire on a curb? Cite two or three ways. 

17. How could a hose leading to the radiator make a car heat? 

18. How many miles should the average car make on a gallon of gas? When driving 35 miles 
per hour? When driving 60 miles per hour? Cruising around town? 

19. What tests must one take to get a learner's permit? Where may it be obtained? 

20. If one has a permit under what conditions can he drive? Explain in full. 

21. What is meant by the power-point when releasing the clutch? 

22. When and under what conditions should the following oils be used? #10? #10W? #20? 
#30? #1+0? 

23. Is transmission grease used j_n modern cars a thick grease or a heavy liquid? 
2k. How can you tell if the crank case needs oil? 

25. How can you tell if a new tire driven 200 to 1+00 miles is wearing unevenly? 

26. What is meant by an internal inspection of tires? 



UNIT TWO 



35 



27. Does any part of a dry clutch ever need oil? 

26. What will happen if the liquid in the shock absorbers gets low? 

29. Why should a special preparation he used for rubber "bearings? 

30. Name different kinds of grease and preparations for proper lubrication of a car. 

G. Exercises in the car. 

Check all aspects of car in preparation for making a trip; gas, water, oil, battery 
(from ammeter on dash when running), tires, windshield, heater, defroster, sun visors, 
rear-vision mirror, etc. Give practice in starting, stopping, steering, and shifting. 
Emphasize radiator care in class. No stanchions are needed on the field. Use outside 
lanes of driving course only. 

H. Class Work. 

This period should be given to the discussion and measurement of psychophysical 
traits of the members of the class as they relate to driving. The Laboratory Eecord 
Form is used and as many of the traits measured as equipment and time will permit. 
Those starred form an excellent basic set of tests. The equipment is relatively simple 
and some of it can be made. (See Appendix E - Simple Aids for Use in Testing and Train- 
ing Drivers.) Other equipment can be sometimes borrowed or set up from stock parts 
found in the physics and psychological laboratories. 

On theoretical grounds it should be pointed out that there are three major cata- 
gories of psychological and psychophysical traits that are fundamentally necessary for 
driving, (a) the sensory elements, (b) the central elements and (c) the response ele- 
ments. In fact they are necessary for success in any way. Since it is known that a 
man could do nothing without some means of knowing what goes on around him, that he 
must recognize the relationships and remember what he sees and that he must be able to 
do something about the situation, it follows that any impairment of these capacities 
must reduce his efficiency to some extent. 

Certain traits and capacities are more important than others and in the following 
we have tried to list the basic ones in order of their importance in driving. 



1. 


Sensory mechanisms -windows of the mind. 








a. Vision 


g. 


Warmth 




b. Muscle sense 


h. 


Cold 




c . Touch 


i. 


The organic sense -hunger, 




d. Equilibrium 




thirst, etc. 




e . Pain 


J. 


Hearing 




f. Smell 


k. 


Taste 



These 11 senses - many people only think of five since Aristotle about 300 B.C. 
named five - contribute in some way to give us information about our surroundings. 
Some contribute only negatively like pain. It is of no particular value to a driver 
but a corn may distract one so that he will have an accident. 

2. Central or brain elements. The general headquarters where all the interpreting 
ia done, and the orders are sent out . 

a. Intelligence or alertness. 

b. Knowledge - how and what to do. 

c. Perceptual efficiency - how many things we can see at once or in a fraction 
of a second. 

d. Our attitudes - feelings about certain things which govern what we do. 

e. Emotions or states of mind which temporarily help or hinder our reactions. 



36 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



Name. 



PROFILE OF DRIVING ABILITY 
Date 



Age 



.Sex 



Maximum Score. 



.Points Made 



.Percentage 



Bating Trait Letter 


Net 

Score 


Profile 
Inferior Superior 
12 3^56^ 
E D C- C C+ B i 


Estimate 
of 
7 Weighting 
i 


Point 
Score 


1. Age 
















3 


1 




2. Health and physique 












\ 




5 


2 




3. Blood pressure (Systolic) 












/ 




5 


3 




k. Blood pressure (Diastolic) 
















3 


1+ 




5. Strength - Grip 
















1+ 


5 




6. Activity - Tapping 
















5 


6 




7. Reaction time - Complex 
















6 


7 




8. Accidents a year 
















6 


8 




9. Car - Years driving 
















6 


9 




10. Attitudes toward risk 
















k 


10 




11. Attitudes toward law 






/ 










k 


11 




12. Knowledge of road law 
















k 


12 




13. Mental alertness 
















6 


13 




Ik . Driving speed 
















5 


ik 




15. Neural stability 
















k 


15 




16. Manipulation 
















6 


16 




17. Observational capacity 
















7 


17 




18. Time for test - score 
















3 


18 




19. Color vision 
















1 


19 




20. Field of vision 
















k 


20 




21. Acuity of vision - R 
















k 


21 




22. Acuity of vision - L 
















k 


22 




23. Acuity of vision - B 
















5 


23 




2k. Difference between two eyes 
















3 


2^ 




25. Distance judgement 
















5 


25 




26. Stereopsis - score 
















3 


26 




27. Eye dominance 
















3 


27 




28. Astigmatism 
















3 


28 




29. Glare 
















k 


29 




30. Phorias 
















3 


30 




31. Hearing 
















3 


31 




32. Recklessness 
















6 


32 





After the Measurements are Made, They are Laid Out 
on the Profile Chart for Careful Study 

Measured traits are here graphed for a test driver of a large comme 
It is to be noted that he is ahove average in practically all traits and 
three - attitudes toward risk, attitudes toward law, and driving speed, 
these traits are in keeping with the nature of his work. 



re ia 1 conce rn . 

low only in 
All three of 



UNIT TWO 



37 



3. Besponding mechanisms - muscles and glands which are the workers or the psychologi- 
cal mechanisms that turn the wheel, feed the gas, press the brake pedal or whatever 
the general headquarters may order. 

a. Reaction - time - or the time it takes to get into action. 

b. Speed of movement or motility which determines how fast we do things. 

c. Coordination or the "basic element of skill. 

d. Strength. 

e. Endurance. 




Clason Visual Acuity Test 



There are several tests and devices available for measuring vision, but such 
measures should be accurately made. It is desirable to know whether or not astig- 
matism is present, the degree of muscle imblanace, and other visual conditions 
which might affect driving under certain conditions. The fact that there are nine 
times as many cars running into trains at night as in daylight indicates the need 
for a great deal of attention to proper use and condition of vision in driving. 



38 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 




Test for judgment of distance and space perception, 



UNIT TWO 39 



Student's Report for Unit Two 

N ame .Date _Hour of Class 

Section Day 

A. Write answers to the following questions from assignment with the reasons for each 
answer. (See F. above) 



1— 

2.- 
5.- 



12.. 

13- 

16.. 

20.. 
22.. 

25- 



B. Sketches. Sketch radiator and show direction of water flow. 



Scheme for rotating tires. 



C. Procedures: State procedure for getting a permit, 



D. Home Study: What driving, or other experience did you have this week with motor 
vehicles? Observe accidents, not passing, etc. 



Graded by . 



Grade assigned. 



m 



r 
r 
r 
r 

e 
e 



■ 



DEVELOPING TECHNIQUE AT THE CONTROLS 

(Student's introduction to Unit Three) 

You are now ready to secure greater finesse at the wheel. Many persons drive for 
years "but still retain amateur driving habits. Others may develop smooth operation in a 
few hours. This is one of the most important lessons you have to learn. 

The first step is mastery of the power-point . It is likely you have "been "bothered 
with this during the last two lessons. Look up a discussion of this in your text. Study 
the drawings of the clutch and the principle upon which it works. Remember you may release 
the clutch several inches and not cause any movement of the car. Suddenly, you feel a 
stoppage of the pressure against your foot. This is the power-point. The next half -inch 
of movement determines whether you start smoothly or roughly. If you release very slowly 
letting the clutch slip slightly you will make a smooth start. After starting take your 
foot off the pedal and place it on the floor. To "ride" the clutch after starting will 
wear the lining unnecessarily. Think this step through several times. Sit on a chair and 
hold your foot in the position it assumes on the pedal. Draw your foot "back about k or 5 
inches saying to yourself, "Wow I am approaching the power-point." "Here it is." Then 
hold your foot still and imagine you are starting very, very slowly. Depress your acceler- 
ator. Wow you are getting under way. Release a shade more. Wow you are moving. Fine! 
Take your foot off the clutch and place it on the floor. By practicing five minutes a day 
at this exercise without getting into a car, you will speed up your learning by several 
hours. Getting the feel of the power-point is one of the most difficult steps in learning 
to drive. Master this principle now . 

The shifting mechanism should next be studied Garefully in your text. Wote that it 
assumes the form of a letter H. Whether on the floor or on the wheel, all cars use this 
same system, except of course some of the newer hydromatic and fluid-drive types which are 
explained in a later chapter. 

Remember, the clutch must be depressed each time before you shift . You must fixate 
this point properly! When starting from a standing position the clutch must be released 
slowly as described above. When shifting through the gears while moving it is usually 
necessary to shift and let the clutch out quickly. Be sure you note this point . Slow re- 
lease of clutch when starting, rapid release when moving! 

Be prepared at this lesson to start and stop smoothly with an empty milk bottle stand- 
ing upright on a level place in the floor of the car. If you upset the milk bottle, either 
starting, stopping or turning a corner your manipulation is faulty. Try again and again to 
accomplish this operation smoothly until you can do it. 

While accomplishing finesse in starting and stopping you should also give attention to 
steering, particularly turning. Remember when you turn a corner you must straighten out by 
" unturning " the steering wheel. Do not expect the car to right itself; since reversible 
steering, as it is called, is by no means universal on automobiles. 

Imagine all lanes or roads as being divided into four channels, two fast lanes at the 
center for passing and two slow lanes at the sides for travel. You are to stay on the 
right side of the road and in your lane. A fundamental principle of all safe driving and 
road design is to avoid cutting lanes as much as possible. 

Draw an intersection, mark it off and think where you should be when turning. It is 
necessary to turn the wheel rapidly at corners to stay in the proper lane. A fundamental 
principle : when approaching corners always slow down the speed , and turn the wheel rapidly 
and accurately to keep in your lane. 

At this lesson you should learn all you can about tires; types, inflation, methods of 
detecting wear, precautions and other items pertaining to care of tires. Check your text 
for everything you can find on tires. Remember also to begin to notice everything outside 
the car and to give your hand signals regularly before turning corners or when changing 
lanes. 

-in- 






Learning the Finer Points in Starting and Stopping. ^j 

Mastery of the Clutch 



This is one of the most important lessons in driving. Mastery of the power-point is 
essential. It may require several lessons. It is "best to intersperse other exercises ^_ 

like turning to keep the class motivated. * 

A. Objectives. ^P 

1. To give practice in shifting through the gears. £s 

2. To develop a feeling of need for smooth operation. ^, 

3. To insure proper knowledge and mastery of starting and stopping skillfully. 
k. To teach the principles necessary for proper care of the tires. 

B. Approaches. 

m 

1. Actual experience with car on test lane. 

2. Appeal to previous knowledge and ohservation of the student. 

3. Readings on proper manipulation of the car. 

C. Procedure. • rs 

1. Shifting from second into high gear. Pages 133-1^9 Sportsmanlike Driving . %. 

2. Stopping from high gear. Pages 2^5-2^6 Sportsmanlike Driving . 4^, 

3. Backing the car. Pages 319-320, Sportsmanlike Driving . ^ I 

D. Evaluation. (Verbal and practical). 

•== 
1. Practical test on following "basis: (Milk bottle on floor.) 

Suggested weighting of test. 

a. Shifting smoothly. 

h. Accelerating smoothly. 

c. Stopping smoothly. 

d. Looking hack (not in 
mirror) when backing. 

e. Use of hand-signals. 

f. Freedom from assistance. 

Instructor should give each student -driver a rating and specific suggestions ^^ 

for improving himself. ^i 

E. References and reviews for notes. ^r 

1. Chapters XVTI and XIX, Sportsmanlike Driving . f*- 

2. Pages 20-^5 in Man and the Motor Car . gt= 

3. See back of Manual for special references. ^. 

-te- #* 



10 


points 


15 


ii 


20 


it 


15 


ii 


15 


ii 


25 


ii 


.00 


points 



UNIT THREE U3 



F. Questions on Unit Three. 

1. Why should hand signals be given at all times? 

2. Should one release clutch suddenly when starting from low? Give reasons. 

3. Should one release clutch suddenly when shifting from low to second? Explain. 
k. Should one ever have both hands off the steering wheel at one time? 

5. Should one let the motor run when a car is parked? Explain. 

6. Should one ever step on the starter before depressing the clutch? 

7. Should the motor be raced at any time? Give two or three reasons. 

8. Can one holding a permit drive alone to get his license examination? Why? 

9. Should tires be left exposed to the sun if possible to avoid? 

10. Will oil affect tire wear? How? 

11. What three ways can the front wheels be out of alignment? 

12. Why will tires "squeal" turning a corner? Give two or three reasons. 

13. Should the accelerator be used in backing on the level? 
lh. Should the lights be left on when starting a motor? 

15. What other reason, than for safety, should the clutch be depressed when starting 
the motor? 

16. Should one look at gear shift and pedals when operating a car? Discuss in a sen- 
tence. Where do dangers ordinarily originate --inside or outside the car? 

17. Will a loose fan belt cause a motor to heat? Explain. 

18. If the radiator freezes up what should you do? In garage? On the road? 

19. If the valve or cock at the bottom of the radiator is opened and all the fluid 
drains out, will any car be safe from freezing? Explain. 

20. Why should one avoid hitting rocks and small objects on the road? 

21. How can a driver keep from hitting them? 

22. If a tire is cut, what should be done? 

23. When should a tire be recapped? 

2k. What is meant by flooding of the carburetor? What condition exists in the manifold? 

25. How can such a condition be cleared out quickly? Give at least three possibilities. 

26. What is a "vapor lock"? When is it most likely to take place? 

27. How can you overcome a "vapor lock" when on the road? 

28. If a car tends to wander when on the road how would you adjust the air pressure of 
the tires? 

29. What are "life guard" tires? How are they made? 



W- LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFE LY 

30. What are puncture-proof tires? Are they practical? 

51. Why should all nails and metal pieces he removed from tires? Give two reasons. 

G. Exercises in the car. 

Check seat adjustment and pay particular attention to handling of the wheel. Work 
for smoothness in operation and placement of the car on roadway when driving. Also "be- 
gin to observe stop signs, railway signs, etc. Be very strict about hand signals. 
Teach the learner to look both ways at corners. Circle field both to right and left. 
Use outside lanes of field, but emphasize proper right and left turns. Have students 
slow down before reaching corners. It may be desirable to shift to lower gear before 
turning. 

H. Suggestions for Class work: 
Care of the tires. 

1. Inflation . Studies have shown that ordinary automobile tires will give least 
wear at around 35 pounds pressure. Manufacturers often make other recommenda- 
tions to give better car performance and comfort. 

2. Notation of the wear . If tires wear unevenly a careful study should be made. 
It may be improper inflation, mal -alignment, or improper wheel balance. 

3. Dangers to tires . Besides under -inflation,, tires may be damaged from hitting 
objects such as rocks, glass, clinkers, ruts, and other objects. 

k. Types of tires . Besides the standard tires there are two commonly used types: 

a. Double tube or life-preserver. 

b. Puncture-proof. 

The former has a double inner tube while the latter has a thickened sur- 
face of sponge rubber which will close up and hold air from ordinary punctures. 
The double tube tires seem to be most successful. The puncture-proof tires 
tend to heat. 



•- 



UNIT THREE k<j 



Student's Report for Unit Three 

Name Date Hour of Class 

Section Day 

A. Write answers to the following questions from assignments with reasons. (See F. above) 



2.- 

3.. 

k.. 



10 

12. 

13. _ 

16. 

19 

2k 

25 

B. Draw the cross-section of a tire having a Life Guard Tube, 



C. Procedures. (a) Explain what you would do to overcome a "vapor lock" if travelling 
up a mountain. 

(b) How would you drain a car to keep it from freezing and endangering the radiator 
or "block? 

D. Describe some driving experience you had this week. A trip you made, observation of 
drivers, help in changing a tire, observe a lubrication job, etc. 



Graded by 



Grade assigned 



*" 



*■ 



9" 



BACKING AND TURNING SAFELY 
(Student's introduction to Unit Four) 

Backing is a very small percentage of one's total driving experience "but it is the 
most dangerous part. A few simple rules, and some practice, will immediately mark you as 
a trained driver. Remember the rear-vision mirror is not to "be used when "backing . You 
must look "back to be sure the way is clear from all directions. You should glance over 
the left shoulder but also turn and look over the right shoulder in such a way as to see 
that the way is clear in both directions. Turn in the seat placing the right hand on the 
back. Steer with your left hand keeping turned so you can look out at the right, the back 
window and the left. 

Move slowly and cautiously. It takes l/2 second to move your foot from the accelera- 
tor to the brake. You may move far enough in this time to run over a child just back of 
your car. Try to back always without using the accelerator. Exceptions may occur, such 
as in soft earth or on a steep grade, but ordinarily it is entirely unnecessary to use the 
accelerator when backing. 

When backing do not "over-steer," that is, turn the wheel too far at a time. The 
rear wheels will not move so readily from side to side, but after once starting to swing 
the car will move rapidly to the side and out of control if the steering wheel is turned 
too far one direction. Practice this until it becomes second nature. You should be able 
to drive backward slowly, turn corners and otherwise maneuver in a safe way. Backing com- 
pletely around the field is a very fine exercise for developing control of a car and in 
developing self-confidence. 

Make turns to the right and to the left going forward, noting that you always give a 
hand signal, watching for traffic back of you and at the side. One turning in front of 
another car is legally at fault and especially so if no hand signal is given. During this 
lesson you should make at least 10-12 turns to the right and to the left. In order to do 
this it is usually necessary to change directions on the field once or twice. 

During this stage of learning to drive, you must begin to direct practically all of 
your attention outside the car . There should be no need for looking down at the gear 
shift, pedals, starter button or anything else except to glance at the gauges and speedo- 
meter when necessary. Remember there is nothing inside the car going to hurt you . All 
your dangers are on the outside. 

Stop for octagonal ( stop ) signs, slow down and go into second for round (railroad 
crossing) signs, and slow up exercising caution for diamond-shape (curves, hill, etc.) 
signs. You are now developing habits that may mean your life later when on the highways. 
Learn to believe in signs and obey them implicitly. 

Remember to keep on your side of the road at all times and to signal for change of 
lane when you are passing. Make your stops and starts so that others will have confidence 
in your driving. A driver does not notice rough starts and stops as much as the passen- 
gers. Practice with the milk bottle on the floor until it always stands while you are 
driving . 

During this unit you should learn all you can about the care of finish on cars. Some 
require wax and some must not be waxed. Protection of the finish from weathering, mars 
and other damage is very important. You are never to touch stanchions or other objects 
while driving. It is a habit which will cost you money when you drive your own car into 
a garage or other narrow places. Almost any small dent or paint job will cost you $10-25. 

Never push a car with the bumper, or allow anyone to push you. Keep a tow chain or 
cable in your car at all times. A dollar tow chain may save you a sixty-dollar grill or a 
hundred-dollar repair bill on your trunk. 

Drivers are judged by the condition of their fenders, and prices of used cars depend 
to a large extent upon their external appearance. 

-kl- 



UNIT FOUR 
Learning to Back and Turn Safely 

One is legally responsible when "backing and should become adept in this aspect of 
driving. It is "best to turn to the right and place the right arm on the seat and thus ob- 
serve in both directions as well as back of the car. 

It is dangerous to use the accelerator. Keep your right foot near or on the brake at 
all times. 

A. Objectives. 

1. To demonstrate and practice the approved method of backing. 

2. To teach the correct procedure in right and left-hand turns. 

3. To develop mastery in maneuvering the car through zig-zag stanchions. 

k. To teach principles making for the proper care of finish, and for the proper care 
and use of brakes. 

B. Approaches. 

1. Actual experience on the test lane. 

2. Discussion of dangers in turning at various points. 

3. Motion pictures, slides, or charts on correct and incorrect practices. 

C. Procedures. 

1. Review the gear maneuvers and simple backing. 

2. Instruct as to the proper way to back, i.e., for safety, and also for student to 
demonstrate the principles of gear shifting discussed on pages 253-255, Sportsman - 
like Driving . 

3. Have student back irregularly according to instructor's specified instructions using 
standard layout. Make at least two right-turn backs and two left-turn backs and one 
complex back. 

k. Student makes turns as follows: (Sufficient to develop skill.) 
a. Right-hand turns. (Emphasize getting into right lanes.) 



b. Left-hand turns, 

c. Execute U-turns, 



(Emphasize getting into left lanes.) 

(Emphasize presence of signs prohibiting U-turns.) 



5. Have each learner drive forward and backward through zig-zag stanchions, 



D. Evaluations. 

1. Amount of hold-over from last training period - 

retention. 20 points 

2. Right backing. 10 

3. Left backing. 10 
k. U-turn in (no jumping of motor) immediate. 10 

5. U-turn in low. 10 

6. Right turn. 10 

7. Left turn. 10 

8. Zig-zag backward. 20 

100 points 

-1*8- 



UNIT FOUR 1+9 



E. References and reviews for notes. 

1. Chapters VI and XV Sportsmanlike Driving . 

2. Pages 66-95, Man and the Motor Car . 

3. Make sketches of hand signals. 
k. Make sketches of turns. 

5. See assignment sheet. 

F. Questions on Unit Four. 

1. Are U-turns legal in most cities? 

2. Who is always responsible when a car is hacking? 

3. Why should one not use the accelerator in hacking? Two reasons. 
h. Why should one not use the rear-vision mirror in hacking? 

5. Why is it necessary to keep moving in a straight line, as nearly as possible, in 
traffic? 

6. How can one avoid U-turns? What is a "real estate" man's turn? 

7. Are U-turns between intersections ever legal? 

8. How should one hold the gear-shift lever on the steering wheel when shifting? 
Illustrate and give reasons. Why is this necessary? 

9. Which lane should one he in when making a right turn? When making a left turn? 

10. What is meant hy a "fast" lane of traffic? 

11. What is meant hy a "slow" lane of traffic? 

12. What defect in steering when hacking do most beginners have? 

13. In caBe your car will not move backward without using gas what is wrong? 
Ik. Where should your feet be placed when backing? Why? 

15. If the pedal goes all the way down on hydraulic brakes and does not seem to work 
what would you do? 

16. What should be done with the car in such a case? 

17. In case your brakes should absolutely and completely fail on a hill what would you 
do to stop? 

18. Why is it essential that you never touch the stanchions on the practice lane? Give 
two or three reasons . 

19. In case you are in a close place and the motor idles too fast, what would you do? 
Will this injure the car? Should one ride the clutch on the road? 

20. If you are going too fast as you approach a corner and you do not wish to, or can- 
not, decelerate the motor, what would you do? 

21. What is a "policeman's" turn? Is it legal? 



50 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

22. What other kind of turn do you know about? Diagram it "by steps. 

23. How can the finish of a car he best preserved? Do all finishes respond to the game 
treatment ? 

2k, Why is violent braking to be used only in a dangerous emergency? Give two reasons. 

25. Calculate the stopping distance in feet for each of the speeds: 

(a) 20 m.p.h. (b) 10 m.p.h. (c) 30 m.p.h. (d) 5 m.p.h. (e) 50 m.p.h. 

(f) 60 m.p.h. (Formula for stopping distance in feet is m.p.h. _*) Do the 

same for ice which may have coefficient of friction of .10 
or less. 

H. Take good care of your car. It is the most expensive thing you possess of a personal 
nature except your home . 

1. Care of finish . Protection of the exterior is a good index of how well you care for 
your car in general. Consult your dealer as to the proper treatment of finish for 
the type on your particular vehicle. Some finishes Bhould be waxed and some should 
not. Any foreign substance adhering to the paint should be carefully removed as 
soon as possible. 

2. Brakes . Your life depends upon your brakes. Keep them in good shape. 

a. To avoid unnecessary wear let your motor do the braking whenever possible and 
slow down before you reach the stopping place. 

b. Release handbrake when you stop. 

c. See that adjustments and fluid are properly serviced. 

d. If it is necessary to "pump up" brakes they need fluid or a new master 
cylinder or parts. 

I. Exercises In the car. This is a preparatory lesson to parking. Most of the time 
should be given to moving forward and backward through zig-zag stanchions. At least 
seven stanchions are set up 25 feet apart and with the apex of the base on a straight 
line 175 feet long. It requires judgment in spacing and skill in handling the wheel 
which can be developed most economically in this way. First drive through forward 
staying in second or low gear. Then have the learner back through slowly. If a fail- 
ure is registered either way have them move to the starting position and try again. 
The whole period should be devoted to this exercise. 

Caution : The driver should never move on the base side of the stanchions. They should 

be alternated with bases set away from the line. Also, the learner should 

never touch the stanchions. It may be harmless here, but it may mean a 
fender in other places. 



& 

& 



*The formula given is for about 8C$ coefficient of friction. If the coefficient of fric- 
tion Ib kOfc the stopping distance will be twice as great, 20$ it is four times as great, 
etc. 



UNIT FOUR 51 



Student's Report for Unit Four 

Name Date Hour of Class 

Section Day 

A. Write answers to the following questions from assignments with reasons. (See F. above) 

1. _ 

2 ■ 

3 ■ 

k 

7 , — 

9. 

15. 

17. ■ — — 

18.. — — 

19. ■ 

23.— 

B. Sketch a "policeman's" turn. A proper turn of l80°. 



C. Procedures. Describe the proper way to set up zig-zag stanchions and what to watch 
when backing. 



D. Home Study. Describe some experience you have had during the week. As a pedestrian. 
As a driver. Of some instance of bad driving. 



Graded by. 



Grade assigned 



** 



PUTTING YOUR CAR WHERE YOU WANT IT 
(Student's introduction to Unit Five) 

To learn to discharge a gun is easy, but to be able to hit the bull's-eye every time 
takes years of experience. This is somewhat true of driving. You now have learned the es- 
sentials of starting and manipulating the car. The next five units will deal \r\ oh preci- 
sion in driving parking, stopping, and observing traffic and traffic controls. 

Precision driving can be learned without spending too much time practicing. On the 
other hand many persons who have learned in an unsystematic way may spend years in driving 
and be unable to do what you can do in the next five weeks. This requires study of the 
assignments in your text and the manual, carefully thinking through of the exercises before 
you try them and practice under a teacher who knows just how much to help you and how much 
to leave to your own judgment. 

There are at least four sets of exercises that will help you in accomplishing this 
skill, as follows: 

1. Driving on a straight continuous line to keep the wheels at a given point in the 
roadway. This exercise requires a line at least 175 feet long painted on the pave- 
ment. It should be marked with a short cross-line at intervals of 25 feet. If not 
feasible to have a line, get 20 or 25 used tires. When laid 25 feet apart and edg- 
ing an imaginary line you have an excellent setup for practicing this exercise. 

It is best to start on the right side of the line of tires which are laid in the 
center and drive forward along the edge keeping a stated distance away. The in- 
structor should tell you the distance to keep clear; two feet, one foot or six 
inches would be suitable. Have one of the class stand at one end and observe. He 
should give no signal or other aid unless you have failed entirely. In this case 
you should go back and try it over again. 

After you have driven forward at a given distance from the tires, back up to where 
you started at the same distance or clearance. Next try the same exercises on the 
left side of the line. This is harder to do. When you can follow a straight line 
it is sometimes well to practice with curved line. (See DMGER'S plan in the ap- 
pendix of this Manual.) 

2. If time permits set up two rows of old tires leaving two feet in addition to the 
car width clearance, and drive forward and backward through them until you can do 
it without touching at any point. Try the same with twelve inches, then with six 
inches clearance. 

5. A third exercise is to set up pairs of old tires at different places on the driving 
range, either on each side of the car or so placed that one wheel can pass through 
without touching. A space three feet, two feet or less may be left between them. 

Note . The purpose of these exercises is sometimes misunderstood. It is not to 
teach you to drive on the line which obviously is not allowed on the highway; but 
is intended to give you skill in placing the wheels where you want them in order 
to dodge nails, rocks, glass, old cans, chickens, small animals lying in the high- 
way or other objects which may ruin your tires or even cause a severe accident. 

k. Since a driver must always control himself in an emergency your instructor may 

deliberately give a sudden signal to stop or do something else in order to develop 
your presence of mind while at the wheel. Be prepared for it and make the most 
skillful stop you can without throwing passengers out of the seat. 

There are many things to be learned about lubrication which will save you expensive 
repairs. Learn all you can about them at this period and if possible visit a first 
class service station and observe a lubrication job. (See form on page 122.) 

-53- 



UNIT FIVE 
Developing Confidence in Driving and Mastery of Turns 

A driver is judged as much by his turns as any one thing he does. Bad turning is re- 
sponsible for a large number of accidents. To be a seasoned driver you must be able to 
handle emergency situations properly. This unit is directed toward these two points of 
mastery. Any repetition made in the objectives is purposely done for emphasis. 

A. Objectives. 

1. To develop assurance while at the wheel. 

2. To introduce surprise situations to test the control of the driver. 

3. To make right and left turns properly when in traffic. 
k. To develop control and skill in placing wheels and car. 

B. Approaches. 

1. Stress, by lecture, need for proper confidence in oneself while driving. Give ex- 
amples of situations when confidence prevented -an accident. 

2. Give instances (cite actual experiences) where the unexpected happened to the driver. 

3. Instructor should demonstrate correct right and left turns in traffic using marked 
lanes on the training field if possible. 

k. Give pupils an opportunity to ask questions regarding right and left turns, and give 
reasons for proper manipulation of turns in traffic. 

C. Procedure. 

1. Instruct student driver that he is to go completely over the driving course without 
any word from the instructor. This places the student on his own resources. 

2. After the student has completely covered the course the first time, tell him that 
you will give him specific commands different from the ordinary routine when going 
around the second time. Introduce new situations as he goes over the field, i.e., 
tell him to stop at a new location, sound horn, make left turn in place of right, 
park by roadside, etc. 

3. Test student specifically on his ability to make right and left turns in traffic. 
!+. Practice driving with right and left wheels on line both forward and backward. 

D. Evaluation. 

1. Allow 25 points if the learner successfully completes the exercise without help from 
the instructor. 

2. Allow ten points each if student driver completes each surprise situation properly. 
(Minimum of 5 situations.) 

3. Allow 25 points on correct right and left turns. 

k. Allow 25 points for keeping within 12 inches of line. Let one of the learners get 
out of the car, observe, and report at end of line, not during the process of follow- 
ing it. ^_ 



UNIT FIVE 55 



E. References and reviews for notes. 

1. Pages 255-267, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

2. Chapters VIII and IX, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

3. Pages 96-109, Man and the Motor Car , (Revised igkk). 

k. Sketch examples of correct and incorrect right and left turns that are found in 
street or highway traffic . 

5. See hack of Manual for classwork. 

F. Questions on Unit Five. 

1. Why should light oil he used in winter? Give two reasons. 

2. Why should a driver he ahle to handle his controls from touch without looking down 
inside the car? 

3. Why is practice given in driving the wheels on a line when a driver must stay off 
the center line in traffic? 

k. When turning a right hand corner, how far hack should a signal he given? 

5. Should hand signals he given at all times when changing the lane or avenue of 
traffic? 

6. Which is the driving field most like so far as maneuvering is concerned? City driv- 
ing? Highway driving? 

7. In taking corners what speed should one travel in the country? 

8. If driving 35 m.p.h. should you take corners at a lower speed? 

9. Should one "brake on the corner while turning? Discuss. 

10. Will the front wheels right themselves on a corner? Why is it dangerous to assume 
they will? 

11. Where should the thumb he when holding the wheel? 

12. Why are 10 and 2 or 10 and k hest positions for holding the wheel? 

13. How fast would you drive along a line of parked cars if there are many pedestrians 
on the road? Why? 

Ik-. What should you do when overtaking a loading school hus on the highway? 

15. On which side should you pass a standing streetcar? 

16. What is the safety zone along a streetcar track? 

17. On which side should you pass a standing trolley hus? A motorbus? 

18. If it is necessary for you to pass children playing along the highway or street what 
would you do? 

19. Can one see when the eyes are moving with the head stationary? 

20. How can you he sure you have a clear right-of-way at an intersection? On the main 
street? What laboratory test is related to this ability? 



56 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

21. When should the horn "be used? 

22. Suppose you had to stop very suddenly on a dry pavement. What would you do? Is it 
good for the tires? Brakes? Your passengers? 

23. Why do people get car sick? Two reasons. 

2k. How large a part of a circle can you see around you with both eyes open? In degrees? 

25. How much of a circle ahead do you see when one eye is closed? In degrees? 

26. Do people see with "both eyes all the time? Which eye can you see "best with? 

27. How long does it take to move the foot from the accelerator to the "brake? 

28. How far would you travel in 3/k second at 30 m.p.h.? 

29. How far would a pedestrian travel when running across the street at 6 m.p.h.? 

30. What is meant "by "hand-over-hand" when turning? 

G. Exercises in the car. 

This assignment is mostly devoted to two objectives: (a) driving on the line with 
either wheel- and ("b) keeping presence of mind in emergencies. Have white line freshly 
laid out 175 feet long. Also at one side have a curved line for practice in getting in- 
to or out of crooked drives. Set up stanchions at one end of field for this purpose. 

Offset stanchions should "be used at this period as they are excellent preparatory exer- 
cises for parking. Set up as follows: (X represents a stanchion) 




Path of car 
X X X X 

Distance A "between the stanchions is 8', distance B from one pair of stanchions to 
the other is 25' and the offset distance C=6 ' . The driver takes the A, path of car 
through the stanchions forward several times. Then he tries it "backwards in the 
same manner. The exercise is tedious to execute and must "be done very carefully. 
Stanchions must not he touched. Drive in low gear. 

H. Lubrication of your car. The main things to remember about lubrication are: 

1. Follow your service manual carefully and see that there are no fittings which will 
be missed. Be sure there are no special points to be greased or oiled or that re- 
quire a special grade of lubrication. Station attendants do not always know. 

2. It takes several kinds of grease to do a good job on a car. What is good for one 
point on the car may not be good for another. 

3. Winterize your car early and summerize it in the spring. 
k. Be sure it is not over-greased. 

5. Use as light oil as possible or as recommended by the manufacturer. 

6. Use any type of deturgent with discretion and, if used, have the crank case drained 
in a few hundred miles of driving. 



UNIT FIVE 57 



Student's Report for Unit Five 



Name. 



Date Hour of Class 



Section Day 



A. Write answers to the following questions from assignments with reasons. (See F. above, 



1.- 

2.. 

3.- 
5- 

7.- 
8.. 
9. 

10. 

14. 



Diagram 5 steps in parallel parking. Label them A, B, C, D, and E. 



C. Procedures. Describe the proper method of passing a school bus. A streetcar. 
A trolley" bus . 



D. Home Study. Cite some article, cartoon, or other matter you have read, or accident 
you noticed in the paper. What experience did you have driving at home this week? 



Graded by 



Grade assigned 



** 



** 






GETTING SPEED AND ACCURACY IN PARKING 
(Student's introduction to Unit Six) 

One of the most disturbing maneuvers to most drivers is parking. It is of primary 
importance to learn to park systematically for several reasons. 

1. You will have more confidence in your driving ability. 

2. It will save the fenders, "bumpers and the radiator grill of your car. 

3. It saves time. One skilled in parking should get into a space 6 feet longer than 
the car in less than 30 seconds. Some can do it in 15-20 seconds. Others will 
spend up to 15 minutes and still not he properly parked. 

k. It is safer. The less time you spend at one place in moving traffic the less 
likelihood you will come into contact with another car. 

The first step in learning to park is to analyze the movements you need to make with 
the car. These are well explained in the text under the caption parking . After you have 
carefully thought through every step there are three sets of exercises which will aid in 
your learning to park quickly and accurately. These will he described as follows: 

1. Preliminary exercises known as the offset stanchions. Place at least k pairs of 
stanchions with the apex of the hase 8 feet apart and the pairs spaced 25 feet 
apart. These pairs are offset six feet a distance of 25 feet apart. It is desir- 
ahle and will save time to have more pairs of stanchions set up. Drive through 
these forward and "backward until facility is obtained and you are sure of yourself. 

2. Set up the stanchions for parallel parking to represent two parked cars with a 
space "between 6 feet longer than your car from bumper to bumper. The outside 
stanchions should set 7 feet from the curb. An old piece of k x k or k x 6 lumber 
about 16 feet long should be laid down to represent the curb. If left outside it 
should be creosoted to protect it from weather. 

You are to drive in and out of this space without touching a stanchion or making 
extra hitches or moves. While state and city ordinances differ, you should try to 
get your car within 6 inches of the curb if possible. Few states would arrest one 
parked within one foot of the curb but your car is less likely to be damaged if 
parked nearer than this distance. Some cities have places where the curb is high 
enough to damage the fenders, if you get too close. In such cases be extremely 
careful when parking. 

Set your car in reverse and turn the wheels to the curb when heading down hill or 
with the wheels turned away from the curb when parked heading up hill. It is well 
to keep in mind that cars having "fluid-drive" will not stand on a grade unless the 
emergency brake is adequate to hold them. A special brake-locking device may be 
obtained as an accessory for certain of these cars and will hold the car securely. 
The "hydromatic" is locked in reverse while the "dynaflow" has a special parking 
position. Most cars with overdrive have free wheeling when in overdrive. Free 
wheeling is like a coaster brake on a bicycle. This means they may roll away when 
left standing on a slant unless the handbrake is very effective and properly set. 
It would be wise for drivers of such cars to keep two small k X k blocks in the 
trunk for blocking the car when parking or changing a tire. 

3. For practice in angle parking set up six stanchions, three on each side, seven 
feet apart and with the apex of the stanchion set in to represent parked cars. 
These should set at an angle of from 30, to 60 degrees, as practice in different 
cities varies. In some wide streets with light traffic, parking at 90 degrees is 
required . 

-59- 



60 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

Drive up about one half car-length distance from the nearest stanchion until in a 
position to turn into the space. Variations in cars and angles make any specific 
directions relatively useless. Your instructor will guide you. Move in without 
touching the stanchions and barely touch the curb with the front wheels. A tire 
may be easily ruined by impact with the curb when angle parking. The steering 
mechanism is often sprung causing excessive tire ware. 

Practice each of these exercises until you can do it easily and with confidence. 
Besides learning to park you are developing technique in maneuvering your car 
which will greatly aid you in the future . 



UNIT SIX 

Learning to Park Easily and Safely 

Perhaps nothing complicates traffic flow more than inferior parking habits and skill. 
A good driver will park a car in from 15 to 20 seconds. Time yourself and improve your 
record. 

A. Objectives. 

1. To analyze and teach the proper method and skill required in parallel parking. 

2. To analyze and teach the proper procedures in up-grade and down-grade parallel park- 
ing. 

3. To teach the proper method and skills required in angular parking. 

B. Approaches. 

1. Demonstration by instructor. Have your instructor demonstrate the steps after you 
have diagrammed them in the class room. 

2. Actual experience on the driving field of procedures outlined. 

3. Discussion of various methods and details of parking; such as, when to set emergency, 
leaving car in gear, cramping wheel, seasonal parking, near alleys, and restricted 
zones. Also consideration of fluid-drive cars. It is best to carry k x k blocks to 
block the wheels. They are also very useful for holding the car when changing a 

tire. 

C. Procedures. 

1. Have student move 1-2 feet from car along side of another car or stanchion. Back 
into position of ^5 degrees. 

2. Have student park on side hill headed down. See pages 260-265, Sportsmanlike Driv - 
ing . 

3. Have student park on side hill headed up. 

h. Have student park between stanchions and line. 

5 . Judgment problems : 

a. Set up stanchions where there are no lines. Have student judge when they are 
far enough apart for him to get into parking position at an angle. Give three 
choices. Allow more credit for reasonably narrow stall. 

6. Explain methods of parking on a hill. Do not practice this exercise until next 
lesson. See pages 329 and KkQ, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

D . Evaluat ions . 

1. Parking parallel without error. 20 points 

2. Parking parallel in less than 30 seconds. 25 

3. Parking properly headed down hill. 10 
k. Parking properly headed up hill. 10 

5. Angle parking. 15 

6. Leaving parallel parking space. 15 

7 . Leaving angular parking space . 5 

-61- 



62 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

E. References and reviews for notes. 

1. Chapters X and XI, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

2. Pages 108-121, Man and the Motor Car . 

3. See reference list at "back of Manual. 

4. Require that each student "be checked by tests in the driving laboratory and secure 
the learner's permit as early in the course as possible. 

F, Questions on Unit Six. 

1, Why should one learn to park quickly? 

2, How much time should you require to properly park parallel? 

3, Is it "best to pull the front of the car in first when parallel parking? 
h. In what gear should a car be left parked on a hill? 

5. Why should a car "be set in gear on a hill? Suggest exceptions. 

6. Why is reverse a desirable gear to use? Two reasons. 

7. If a car has an overdrive and it is set to be in overdrive, should one depend on 
the gear to help hold the car from rolling away? Why? Which car is an exception? 

8. If one is under 18 and gets a permit or license, who must grant permission and what 
procedures are necessary? 

9. How far may a car be away from the curb and yet be legally parked? 

10. If headed down hill, which direction with reference to the curb should the front 
wheels be set? 

11. If headed up hill, which way should the wheels be turned? 

12. How close to a corner or alley may one park legally? 

13. List 10 other places where parking is, or may be, prohibited? 

Ik. Sketch out five definite steps in parking a car parallel to the curb. 

15. How much space, in addition to the overall length of the car, should one have for 
successful parking? 

16. How could you tell if a car is missing on one cylinder? How could you determine 
which one is missing? 

17. In angle parking, what angle is ordinarily used? 

18. Sketch out the plan to follow in angle parking. Draw in the cars on each side and 
5 positions of a car parking. 

19. Mention three errors which are usually made in backing? Can you cite any others? 

20. What does a square highway sign mean? A round sign? A hexagonal sign? A diamond- 
shaped sign? 

21. What is meant by double parking? Is it legal? 



UNIT SIX 63 



22. Why should the motor not he left running in a parked car? Two reasons. 

23. How can you tell if the generator is not working? 
2k. Explain in detail what is meant hy a "safety zone". 

25- When hacking, which driver is legally responsible? One car moving forward or stand- 
ing. 

26. Should the hand brake be set when properly parked? 

27. If you were in a crowded city where would be the safest place to park? 

28. If you park on a hill, how should the wheels be left? Up hill? Down hill? 

G. Exercises in the car. 

This lesson is designed to teach the use of skills so far developed in parallel 
parking. The instructor should begin by diagramming and describing the steps necessary 
in parking by use of sketches on the blackboard. The blackboard analysis of angular 
parking may also be shown. Call attention to the setting of gears, levers, and wheels 
when parking on a grade. Set up stanchions for parallel parking on one side and angular 
parking on the other side of the driving field. 

H. Taking good care of your car. 

1. The interior . A shoddy-looking car is depreciated a great deal in value. Keep the 
inside looking like new. Regular cleaning is necessary besides the need for care in 
keeping the cushions free from burns, stains, and other damage. 

2. Cars should be equipped with 10 - 12 volt batteries. Six volt equipment on modern 
cars is too light and must be given every advantage to perform properly. Here are 
a few pointers: 

a. Turn off your lights when starting the car. 

b. Be sure lights are off at all times when not being used. Turning on lights 
when on a trip does not benefit battery in modern cars. They have automatic 
regulators. 

c. See that all devices are attached to the ignition switch. When it is off 
others cannot be connected. 

d. Batteries are rated from 120-140 ampere hours. Allowing for full efficiency, 
your lights will run them down in 6 - 12 hours if motor is not running. The 
same is true of a radio. 

e. Keep the terminals on your battery clean and greased with white vaseline. 

f. See that generator charge is set properly. 

g. Have distilled water put into battery regularly. Ask your instructor for 
points other than those listed. 



6k 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 




A unit type of testing and training device 



UNIT SIX 65 



Student's Report for Unit Six 



Name. 



Date Hour of Clasa 



Section Day. 



A. Write answers to the following questions for assignments with reasons. (See F. above, 



2.- 
k.. 



16. 
20. 
22. 
27. 
28. 



B. Sketch signs for the following: Indicate color of "background. 

(1) CurVe. (2) Railroad. (5) Residential district, 

(It) Stop. 



C. Procedures. From the laboratory tests list four things you should compensate for. 
Explain how you will do this. 



D. Home Study. Time some member of the family in parking. Do the same for yourself. 
What experience with a car did you have this week? 



Graded by . 



Grade assigned 






r 
r 



DEVELOPING SKILL IN GETTING IN AND OUT OF CLOSE PLACES 
(Student's introduction to Unit Seven) 

Every driver finds himself in a very close place at times. Fear of moving traffic on 
the highways is mostly a psychological matter and will gradually subside with experience. 
Fear of manipulating in close places is mostly a matter of skill and requires a great deal 
of practice for high efficiency. 

The exercises given in this lesson are very practical and important to develop the 
fine points of driving. Suppose you are on a mountain road and a "bridge is washed out. 
It is necessary to turn around and there is a ditch on either side. Precision of control 
and confidence on the part of the driver is required to make a safe turn. 

Again you may have left your car in a parking lot, at a hall game or on the street 
while shopping. You return and find cars all around it with only space that might provide 
an escape if you are clever enough at the wheel. These situations frequently are met. 

In addition, the more skillful you become in such close places the tetter you will be 
able to negotiate the garage when storm windows, lawn mowers and other articles are stored 
there. Inspection of garages and driveways will reveal ends pushed out, doors torn off, 
hedges mashed down along the drive and even bricks and boards off the house itself. All 
these are indications of only one thing- -untrained drivers. A trained driver, even though 
he lacks skill at first, will go slow enough to do no harm even if he does come in contact 
with other vehicles or objects. This is accomplished by letting the motor run slowly and 
inching along by slipping the clutch. 

On the latter point also a comment should be made. One parent was very disturbed to 
think we taught drivers to slip the clutch. Until he observed his own reactions carefully, 
he honestly believed that one never slips his clutch when driving. What he meant was that 
one should not "ride" the clutch when driving on the road as it will wear the surface un- 
necessarily and even bum it. The clutch is designed to "give" or "slip" when power is 
being applied, in order to give flexibility in maneuvering in close quarters. 

The first exercise in this unit is learning to turn around on a slab 25 feet wide. 
Read your text carefully for full details but remember, you are to look, signal when clear 
and head across the road first. Second, back up to the proper point after reversing the 
direction of the front wheels to throw the front of your car to the left. 

In all such close maneuvers two schools of thought exist: (l) one says, ^ "Do not turn 
your steering wheel unless you are moving slightly", and (2) the other says, "Turn your 
wheels while standing if it saves you time." The first method tends to save your tires, 
the steering mechanism and your arms. The second will very often save you time and per- 
haps your neck. You will need to decide which is preferable. The important ^ thing is that^ 
you do not loiter while across the road. An illegitimate turn known as the "boot-legger's 
or "policeman's" turn reverses the steps above but is by all means to be discouraged for 
reasons your instructor will explain. 

The second exercise of this unit is that of getting in and out of a so-called garage. 
Stanchions are set up so you start in and at one side of the garage, then pull over in 
front of a car parked on the other side. The exercise provides good practice at this level 
of advancement. Remember to observe every sign on the course during practice or you will 
develop careless habits which may mar your record as a driver. 



-67- 



UNIT SEVEN 
Learning to Get Your Car in and out of Close Places 

Most anyone can "herd" a car along the road if there is little or no traffic. Even a 
child operates his scooter, "bicycle, or toy car with a reasonable degree of safety. It is 
the close places in traffic, getting in and out of the garage, etc., which cause most 
trouble for drivers. A driver needs to have considerable skill to keep out of trouble in 
emergencies. 

A. Objectives. 

1. To develop skill in maneuvering in close places. 

2. To develop poise, confidence and emotional control of the driver. 

3- To prepare in advance so that right and left turns may be made properly in traffic. 

h. To develop mastery in the principles of angular parking. 

5- To develop skill in driving between fixed objects on each side and to maneuver 
through close places in traffic. 

B. Approaches. 

1. Stress the need for a proper balance between caution and confidence while at the 
wheel. Encourage the learner to think through and anticipate hazards. 

2. Cite experiences of your own where hazards were overcome by being properly prepared. 

3. Give pupils an opportunity to review the motor code and give reasons for several 
traffic laws. 

k. Emphasize slowing down before turning corners. 

C. Procedure. 

1. Have the driver plan a route to be taken and anticipate danger points in advance. 
He is to observe all signs and give hand signals as they should be given in traf- 
fic. 

2. Have the class suggest specific maneuvers different from the ordinary routine as 
the driver goes over the field, such as; stop, give hand signal, sound horn, back 
up 100 feet, park by the roadside, etc. 

3. Test pupil specifically on his ability to make right and left turns as he would do 
in traffic. 

h. Give drill in making accurate parallel parking without bumping the curb. Use k x k 
for curb. 

5. Use offset stanchions as described above. Four, five, or six sets or pairs spaced 
twenty- five feet apart. Each pair is to be spaced eight feet apart. Offset each 
alternate pair of stanchions six feet from a side line. 



UNIT SEVEN 6 9 



D. Evaluations. 

1. Allow 25 points if the pupil successfully negotiates the driving course without any 
help from the instructor. 

2. Allow 5 points each if student driver completes each surprise situation properly. 
(Minimum of 10 situations.) 

3. Allow 25 points on correct right and correct left turns. 

E. References and reviews for notes. 

1. Pages 253-264 and 366- 371, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

2. Chapters XI and XVI, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

3. Pages 112-139, Man and the Motor Car . 

h. Review the steps for (a) parallel parking, (b) angular parking. 

F. Questions on Unit Seven. 

1. Explain how one should handle the wheel in turning a corner. 

2. Why is the top of the radiator or a projection on the lamp or fender a poor guide 
for placement of car when driving? 

3. Name three or four antifreezes which have "been used and describe each. Give dis- 
advantages of each type. 

4. What should one do last in parking a car? 

5. If you were to damage another parked car, what should you do to fulfill legal 
obligations? 

6. If a wagon or other vehicle is moving slowly along the road, what should you do when 
passing? 

7. How far should the vehicle's wheels be kept from the center line? 

8. How much clearance does one have in entering the average garage? 

9. Make a sketch illustrating correct right and left turns. Show the four lanes of 
traffic . 

10. Should one pass at an intersection? 

11. Is one to drive a car with one hand only? Why? 

12. If you were going to pass another car going in the same direction, where would you 
look for other cars? 

13. Why do some cars ride hard? What can be done about it? 
Ik. How often should the crankcase oil be changed in a motor? 

15. If your car is not used for a few weeks, what should you inspect before driving? 

16. What are two very common faults of learners and beginning drivers? (One at corners 
and one in straight driving.) 

17. Is it ever permissible to cut corners or drive on the wrong side of the road? 



70 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

18. If you were to sell a car in your state, what happens to the license plate? What 
must you do to transfer a car? Is it the same in all states? 

19. What is collision insurance? 

20. What is hospitalization insurance? 

21. If the lights flare up and then subside, what is the trouble? 

22. How should lights be set in a fog? Discuss. 

23. Should one smoke while driving? Discuss. 

2k. When one turns his head while driving, what is the natural tendency with respect to 
the wheel? 

25. Where should the eyes be resting when driving on the open road? 

26. What is the difference between property damage and personal liability insurance? 
Are they sold separately? 

27. Are shock absorbers usually mechanical, or are they hydraulic? 

28. What kind of grease should be used on the water pump? 

29. What is usually included in a "tune-up" of the motor? When should it be taken care 
of, i.e., what time of the year? 

30. What should the temperature gauge indicate during ordinary driving? 

31. How much play is permissible in the steering wheel? 

32. If the steering gear vibrates, what is likely to be wrong? 

G-. Exercises in the car. 

Review of parallel and angular parking is largely the purpose of this Unit. The 
parking may be done incidentally in connection with other practice exercises. Practice 
further in driving forward and backward between offset stanchions. 

H. Responsibilities of the driver in a legal way. See pages 366-37I, Sportsmanlike Driv - 
ing . 

There are certain things in most states which a driver must do to get a driver's 
license. One is to drive according to local regulations. Still another is to have the 
car properly registered and equipped. A final one is to meet the requirements with 
respect to insurance. States differ but here are some types of insurance to consider 
and listed in order of importance to the driver. 



UNIT SEVEN 



71 



Nature of Insurance 


Who and What 
It Protects 
You From 


Average 
Amounts 


Approximate Cost 
(annual) on Small 
Car Varies with 
Locality 


1. 


Public Liability 


Damage suits 


10,000 to 
20,000 




$15-^5 


2. 


Property Damage 


Property damage 
to others as in 
No. 1 


$5,000 to 
$10,000 




$5-9 


3. 


Fire and Theft 


You 


Value of Car 




$6-10 


k. 


Comprehensive Cover- 
age in Addition to 
Fire, Theft, etc. 


You 


Value of Car 
or part 
damaged 




$6-10 


5. 


Hospitalization 


Injury to you 
or others 


Up to $500 




$5-7 


6. 


Collision 


Injury to your 
car 


Value of Car 




$30-90 


7. 


Road Bond 


You 


Amount of 
Bond 




$3 


8. 


Theft Rental 


You while your 
car is gone 


Amount of 
Rent 




$1-2 



•a 



72 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



c- 



UNIT SEVEN 73 



Student's Report for Unit Seven 

Name . Date Hour of Class 

Section Day 



A. Write answers to the following questions from your assignment with reasons. (See F. 
atove ) 



10. 
12. 
Ik. 

18. 
19. 
2k. 
25. 

26, 



B. Sketch a section of the highway. Let X represent children going to school. Let Y 

represent your car and Z another car coming from the other direction. Trace your path 
in passing the children and indicate location of the other car at the time. Give dis- 
tance in feet. 



C. Procedures. Explain how you would go about cleaning out a radiator which tends to heat, 
Give a step "by step procedure . 



D. Home Study. Descrihe any experience you had this week pertaining to driving. 



Graded "by. 



Grade assigned 



■< 



<^*' 



YOUR COMING DEBUT IN TRAFFIC 
(Student's introduction to Unit Eight) 

The first and most important part of this lesson has to do with learning to start, 
stop and stand on a hill without rolling hack. Recently a girl in the midwest stalled 
her car on a hill. Unable to make a proper start, she lost control, hacked down into a 
stream, and drowned herself and three or four children. Only one child escaped by jumping 
through the window. A half hour's instruction and practice on standing and starting on a 
hill would have no doubt saved their lives. 

While advanced drivers may short-cut the following steps under certain conditions, we 
recommend them without reservation to all amateur drivers and suggest that students learn 
to use them exclusively. Naturally starting on a steep hill requires more adeptness hut 
the principles are the same. If your hand brake does not hold on a hill, get it to your 
garage and'be sure it is set up to hold the car on any ordinary grade. Since most drivers 
learn "by themselves and do not worry ahout the final step in starting- -release of hand- 
hrake--you will find many cars with ineffective hand hrakes. This is one of the weakest 
parts of a modern automobile. Certain makes are designed so you cannot shift into second 
gear unless your hand brake is released. Some drivers put a buzzer or light on their so- 
called "emergency" brake--it is anything but "emergency" --to warn them when it is not re- 
leased. 

Assuming you have a hand brake which will hold the car, the steps to be followed are: 
(You are standing with the hand brake set and the motor running.) 

1. Accelerate until the motor is running at a speed adequate to start you up the 
grade. This will vary with the road surface. 

2. Release your clutch slowly until you reach the power-point and the car begins to 
quiver slightly. 

3. Begin to release your hand brake gradually and at the same time release your 
clutch slowly and feed enough gas with the accelerator to take over the backward 
thrust of the car and start it forward. This is a delicate step and you will need 
to practice it carefully to avoid either of two possibilities: 

a. Car starts to roll back down grade. 

b. You will stall the motor. 

Either of these is bad and can be avoided with proper skill and coordination. Prac- 
tice these steps carefully until you have them mastered. Try a mild grade first and after 
you have your license practice further on a steep grade until you can do this perfectly 
under all conditions. It is best to practice near the foot of the hill. 

At this time you should also review your basic abilities and aptitudes as shown on 
psychophysical tests and try to think of ways to compensate for them. If your vision is 
poor drive slower and keep a sharp lookout all around you. If your vehicle is under ^con- 
trol you will not hit cars you see. They may hit your car, but if you see them in time, 
you may even be able to get out of their way. Remember the axiom, "You will be just as 
dead if you were dead right." It pays to be cautious even though you are right. 

Allow yourself more time if your reaction time or action time is slow. If you are 
timid or nervous do not allow yourself to get into a pinch. If sleepy or tired rest be- 
fore driving further, get some strong coffee or stop over until the next day. 

Keep in your lane at all times unless necessary to change lanes then signal before 
changing. Keep well behind other vehicles --about twice your stopping distance, which is 
the speed in miles an hour squared and divided by 10. Thus at 20 miles an hour this would 
be 20 x 20 or i+00 divided by 10 which equals kO feet. This would mean 80 feet behind 
other cars or about five car lengths . 

-75- 



76 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



Make stops slowly and carefully after giving distinct hand signals. Stop for all 
signal lights and ohserve traffic signs and warnings. Determine in advance where you are 
going, the route, etc., and try to avoid heaviest traffic. You will therehy greatly re- 
duce hazards that may he met . 



SIGNS USED ON DRIVING FIELD 



16 Oa. 5HLET METAL SIGNS 

FIG A 



JCALt VABjAftLt 



STANDAQ.D HIGHWAY COMMISSION SONS 



4U 
TDP 

T Z L 

L P E C 7 O 
D Z L. T F P 

r uj c z p 4 d 



Black On whiTL 
k» .Ok 



nee 



rice 



SON) HORN 



RMKHERE 



WMITL ON BCD 



WMITf C4 eco 



ALL \6 ' 13k 
ft D J LLTTCP_5 FIG E 



DRIVE IN 
FOR OIL 



BACK INTO 
LEFT LANE 



WniTt ON flCt EN 



WmTC ON P^i ft 



CATTLE 
CROSSING 



*H'[ ON &LUC 

FIG G 



5LCUR6AN 



DRIVE 
WITH CARE 



CH5TRCT 



Black ON w«iT[ 




FIG I 



'9 

BlAC" &h WHlTf 



FIG J 



bl .Ot" 



BLACK ON WHITt 



6; AC " OH WmTL 




BLACn ON YELLOW 



ARTLRIA.L 



STOP 



Bl. ACH ON VfLLOW 



Traffic Markers and Signs 



A complete set of state and federal highway signs on the driving field. 
These familiarize the learner with standard markers. 



UNIT EIGHT 
Preparing for Traffic and Road Driving 

Before taking full responsibility for a car a reasonable amount of apprenticeship is 
helpful. This Unit is designed to fulfill the part of such training. 

A. Objectives. 

1. Mastery of hand signals and observance of traffic signals. 

2. To call attention to the hazards of driving and how to avoid them. 

3. To give experience on different road surfaces and on hills. 

k. To teach the proper procedures in starting on a hill. 

5. To make the learner aware of his basic capacities, or the lack of them, and how to 
compensate for his deficiencies. 

B. Approaches. 

1. Discuss importance of skill in maneuvering in prevention of accidents. Emphasize 
the fact that skill does not mean "stunt" driving. 

2. Explain why safety pays. 

a. Discuss and quote figures on damage cost of accidents and who pays the bill. 

b. Can you afford to pay for your damage? 

c. Discuss and show pictures of traffic situations. Try to analyze them. Film 
on "Drunken Driving" . 

3. Practical work. 

a. Road driving for those with permits. Give experience on hills and on various 
road surfaces . 

C . Procedure . 

1. Building up attitudes. 

a. Cite instances and consequences of lack of driving skill. 

b. Check on age of students and whether or not they have their learner's permits. 
If not find out why and encourage them to obtain permits. 

c. Give attitude tests. See Appendix. 

2. Cost of accidents. 

a. How much has an accident cost some friend or member of the family? 

b. Could they well afford it? 

c. What provision is made for the poor man who couldn't possibly make a damage 
payment ? ( Insurance . ) 

d. Be sure students can answer questions as to liability of all parties in an 
accident --driver, owner of car, legal guardian of a minor, limits of insurance 
coverage. 



-77- 



78 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



3. Driving practices. 

a. What is meant "by the term "driving ahead"? Develop this point and try to make 
an observant passenger of the student. (They will ride more than drive for 
some time yet . ) (' 

"b. Does the driver avoid situations such as these: 

(i 

(1) Getting caught "behind truck or slow car on hill? 

(2) Getting caught at successive red lights? (' 

(3) Coming on unexpected curves, dips, or changes in road surface? , 
{k) Any situation that requires haste to maneuver properly? 

c. Try to develop pride in skill at sizing up traffic situations and always being l 
right. (The right place at the right time.) Use Stoner Traffic Board. See 

Appendix. (j 

d. Deliberately make pupil critical of anyone who is not using good practices. 

(it is one approach we have to the driver already on the road.) * 

e. Try to develop assurance as to right-of-way, when to turn, where and what to do . 
in case of doubt . Illustrate, "by diagrams, the "best method of turning. 

D. Evaluation. ' 

1. Check the skill and advancement of the driver "by the Rogers -La uer Scale. (See i 
Appendix. ) 

i 

2. Subjectively try to think in terms of what the pupil should he doing automatically 

after driving 5000 miles. i 

E. References and review for notes. 

1. Pages 265-268, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

2. Chapter XX, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

3. Pages 1*1-0-162, Man and the Motor Car . 

k. Review completely the state manual on road laws. 
5. See references in hack of Manual. 

F. Questions on Lesson Eight. t 

1. Why should one stop at all stop signs even when no danger exists? Two reasons. < 

2. Why should a driver he able to drive his car automatically? Does this mean he need t 
not pay attention? 

3. Outline the steps for starting a car on a hill. Which is the most critical step? 

k. What particularly should be avoided when starting up hill? How? ' 

5. List 10 incorrect practices you have noted in other drivers. ( 

6. Why should a beginning driver not exceed 25-35 miles an hour for several thousand f 
miles? 

7. How do you rank on distance judgment? When is this ability valuable? 

8. Which eye do you tend to use? " 

9. Which side might you fail to notice on approaching car? I 



UNIT EIGHT 79 



10. How can you be sure to see approaching pedestrians or vehicles on either side? Why? 

11. How wide is your field of vision in degrees? 

12. Will your field "be this wide when you are tired? When you are sleepy? When you are 
"busy with driving at road speeds? 

13. What is scotoma? Does one have such naturally? In which eye? 

Ik. If one were involved in any kind of accident in the country, would he need report 
it? Under what conditions and to whom? 

15. Suppose the accident happened in a city. To whom should it be reported? 

16. How far "behind another car should you follow ordinarily? Calculate distance "be- 
tween cars at 20 m.p.h., 30 m.p.h., 50 m.p.h., and 60 m.p.h. (On dry pavement.) 

17. Is a safe stopping distance the minimum? Why? How does it vary with conditions 
of the roadway? 

18. Make a list of 10 common violations. See Accident Eacts for your own state or by 
the National Safety Council. 

19. Could one be arrested if he doesn't have his driver's license with him? 

20. How long would it take to move your foot from the accelerator to the brake and 
apply brake? How far would you travel at twenty miles an hour? 

21. Should one always consider the main right-of-way as being clear when he is approach- 
ing a stop-street? 

22. In case of an accident is the person to blame always the most seriously injured? 

23. What is meant by defensive driving? 

2k. Do you rate high mechanically? A, B, C-plus, C-, V, or E? What should your rating 
indicate to you? 

25. What age groups are most likely to have accidents when driving? Could persons in 
this age range be safe drivers if properly trained? 

26. How many persons are killed annually by automobiles? What per cent are pedestrians? 

27. At what places would you need to be very careful of pedestrians? How can you be 
careful? 

G-. Exercises in the car. 

This is partly a review period and should be devoted to the weakest points of 
each learner. All should be given the chance to start on a hill. (Set up field as 
needed with white line renewed.) Review class periods covered. Start using cross 
roads and teach traffic circle (always to the right) in this lesson. 

H. Newer devices for traffic controls. 

1. Traffic lights. 5. Superhighways. 

2. Traffic circle. 6. Newer light signals: flashing lights, 

3. Clover-leaf. walk signal, arrows, etc. 
k. One-way streets. 

Instructor should cover each of these points and use models if possible. 



8o 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



T% ■ 



../^v.- •*»»«, 





,w : 







Types of Roads and Road Surfaces 

Every driver should learn of the inherent dangers in driving on certain types 
of roads. The pavement at the upper left is a type of improved bituminous roadway 
which is more or less slippery when wet. That at the upper right is very treacher- 
ous and extreme caution should he exercised in use of the brake, especially when 
hot, wet, frosty, or if covered with ice film. 

The surface at the lower left has been treated with a moderately course aggre- 
gate which gives fairly good traction unless covered with sleet or ice. Lower right 
shows a course aggregate which gives good traction under any ordinary conditions. 

Over-use of the brake, even though done safely, greatly increases tire wear 
and necessitates premature relining of the brakes. 



Bi 



UNIT EIGHT 



81 



Name . 



Student's Report for Unit Eight 



Date , Hour of Class 



Section Day 



A Write answers to the following questions for assignments. Give reasons. (See F. above) 



2.- 

7.- 

9- 

10.. 

15.. 
17., 
22.. 

25. 
26.. 

27. 



B. Make a drawing showing your own field of vision. What would it prohahly he like if 
you were tired? 



C. Procedures. Discuss the steps you would take if caught on a mountain road with a vapor 

lock. 



D. Home Study, list 10 articles or other reading you have done this week on highway 
safety and driving. 



Graded hy. 



Grade assignment 



GROOMING YOURSELF FOR TRAFFIC DRIVING 
(Student's introduction to Unit Nine) 

You have now completed all the minimum essentials of safe and sane driving. If you 
use good judgment and caution, you should not only obtain the satisfaction of driving with 
confidence, "but you should also be recognized as a good driver by other drivers. Li- 
censing examiners, friends and relatives of drivers properly trained are loud in their 
praise of superior performance usually displayed. Studies have shown that your chances of 
accidents are reduced about 75 Per cent over what they would be if you had not received 
training, and perhaps the danger of serious accidents 90 per cent. 

The first step in launching a safe driving career is to be sure you have mastered all 
the steps and principles taught in this course; and second, you should resolve that you 
will practice them religiously. Everything you have been taught is based on past experi- 
ence of other drivers. There are no purely vague-opinion concepts used. Those who have 
not studied driving may have opinions of their own. No doubt this diversity of opinion 
is partly responsible for 30,000 to 35,000 highway deaths, nearly half a million permanent 
injuries and over a million minor injuries annually. Certain studies of a well -policed 
and controlled area, indicate our fatalities from motor vehicles should not run over 
7,000-8,000 a year. 

Besides the necessity for further practice in smooth starting and stopping, proper 
turns, position at the wheel, observation of traffic and traffic warnings and markers, 
parking, starting on a hill and observing signals, there are certain things you should 
think through carefully before going on the highways by yourself. A review of Section VIII 
in the Manual would be of a great deal of value to you at this time. Study each of the 
26 items in light of what you have learned from the Manual, your text, outside readings, 
or from your instructor. If there is any doubt about any of them, ask that it be ex- 
plained. Study accidents described in the newspapers, and try to assign causes and ways 
in which the collison might have been avoided. 

Some common errors made by inexperienced drivers are listed below. These account for 
many of the failures to pass the drivers licensing examination. 

1. Failure to give distinct hand signals. 

2. Not bringing the wheels to a definite stop at a Stop Sign or signal. (This is 
legally necessary in most states.) 

3. Wide right turns --swinging out into the other lane. 

k. Cutting corners on a left turn- -getting into the other lane. 

5. Failing to get into the right lane by signalling in sufficient time before turning. 

6. Failing to get into the left lane by signalling in time before turning left. 

7. Allowing car to roll when standing at a Stop Sign or signal. Keep your foot on the 
foot brake to hold the car. 

8. Weaving in traffic or crossing theoretical as well as marked lane lines. 

9. Sudden stops ano. killing of the engine. Be sure to release clutch before the brake 
is depressed to stop when driving slowly . 

10. Jerky starts and stalling of the motor. 

11. Failure to look both ways at intersections and using rear vision or side mirrors 
or failure to yield right-of-way when legally or otherwise necessary for safety. 

12. Rushing into a dangerous situations. Stop and wait at side of street if there is 
a congestion of vehicles or pedestrians ahead. At least slow up and drive care- 
fully as you pass. 

13. Crowding pedestrians at crosswalks. 

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&k 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



Ik. Actual contact with other vehicles, fixed objects or pedestrians. 

15. Excessive speed--at least too fast for conditions. 

16. failure to slow down before reaching a corner. 

17. Driving to the place of examination alone or on a permit which allows you to drive 
only with a licensed driver. 

18. Lights and other legally required equipment out of working order. 

There are other things which could he mentioned but these will suffice to help you 
review for your first trip into traffic. It will be easy to negotiate if you observe 
closely, know what to do and have sufficient skill to preform smoothly. 



r 
r 

ni 



UNIT NINE 
Further Principles of Traffic Driving for Practice 

No one ever "becomes a perfect driver. It is necessary to practice certain things 
which you wish to fixate permanently. This Unit is designed to help prepare for the 
driver's license examination as well as for a successful driving career. 

A. Objectives. 

1. To improve the learner's technique in control of the car preparatory to road driving. 

2. To teach the theory and use of the clover-leaf as a traffic safety device and ex- 
pediter of traffic flow. 

3. To cultivate close observation of signs, and other conditions outside the car, 
necessary for safe driving. 

k. To develop individual responsibility for manipulation of the car on the road. It 
would he advisable for those who are qualified to make the round of the driving 
field hy themselves, all other learners remaining at headquarters or following in 
another vehicle and scoring the driver on his performance- -solo driving. The in- 
structor should he sure the person is qualified to handle the car. 

B. Approaches. 

1. Analyze the clover-leaf in class and show reason for various turns. 

2. Discussion of the extent of use of clover-leaf. Use motion pictures if available 
to show modern highways. 

3. Instructor demonstrates and has each learner verbalize the use of the clover-leaf 
calling attention to the various turns and avenues of traffic. 

k. Use some form or model such as Stoner's Traffic Board. 

C . Procedure . 

1. Actual field practice in use of a small-size one-plane traffic circle and clover- 
leaf. 

2. Allow each learner who is qualified to take car around field alone once. Class can 
follow a safe distance in truck or other training vehicle and score learner accord- 
ing to evaluation plan below. 

3. Get class to discuss each other's driving while observing. 

D. Evaluation. 

Use following plan for scoring each driver on trip around driving field. Mark zero 
for failure to do proper practice, five points for faulty execution and ten points for 
satisfactory performance. 

1. Getting into right lane when turning corner. 

2. Slowing up before reaching a corner. 

3. Starting smoothly. 

h. Hand signal for right turn. 

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LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



5. Hand signal for atop. 

6. Keeping in proper lane when turning- -neither cutting corner nor swinging wide into 
opposite lane. 

7. looking "both ways at railroad. 

8. Hand signal for left turn. 

9. Hand signal for changing lanes. 

10. Holding foot on brake when standing. 

E. References and review for notes. 

1. Pages hlk-kZ'J, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

2. Chapter XXI, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

3. Pages 163- 186, Man and the Motor Car . 

k. Review road laws for your state and note items which confuse you. 
5. Ask instructor to explain anything you do not understand. 

F. Questions on Unit Nine. 

1. Where are traffic circles and new type highway controls most frequently encountered? 

2. Are they decreasing or increasing in general usage? 

3. Why is it nesessary to give a signal when changing lanes? Do the laws require it? 

k. Why should a car he kept from rolling when standing with motor running? Will pres- 
sure on the "brake he of any value? 

5. If you approach several vehicles congregated in the road hut your lane is clear 
what should you do? 

6. Does the road law cover practices in this respect? (See Question #3.) 

7. At what age can one legally drive in your state? 

8. Do traffic laws apply to persons from another state? 

9. Will you need to follow traffic laws in other states to avoid fines? 

10. Why is the clover-leaf a safety feature in highway construction? Give at least two 
reasons. 

11. Are you legally responsible when hacking your car? 

12. Where should your feet he when hacking? Why? Give two reasons. 

13. Can one U-turn (reverse direction) at all intersections? Discuss. 

Ik. Where are traffic markers placed with reference to the points raised in Question 13? 

15. Should one sound his horn for pedestrians? Under what conditions may this he done 
and how? 

16. When at the wheel, how would you know if your right front tire were low? Left 
front? 



UNIT NINE 8 7 



17. How could you tell if one of the rear tires were low when driving? 

18. If an accident occurs what procedure does the law require? Would this he necessary 
if you were not at fault? 

19. What is meant hy "fixing" a ticket? 

20. Do all parents guard their children carefully from traffic? If not how does this 
affect you as a driver? 

21. Are commercial vehicles more dangerous than private automohiles as shown hy acci- 
dent records? 

22. Which direction do you turn when entering a traffic circle? 

23. What is meant hy an "inside turn"? Outside turn? 

G. Exercises in the car. This period should he used to develop confidence in the driver 
and to prepare him for road driving and the driver's license examination. It should he 
devoted to consideration of individual needs of the group. Below are a few suggestions: 

1. Attention to clutch. 

2. Backing on curves. 

3. Skill in placing the car accurately. 
k. Turning around on a 25-foot pavement. 

5. Starting on a hill. 

6. Parallel parking. 

7. Angular parking. 

8. Getting into an outside (stanchion) garage. 

9. Stopping at crosswalks. (Nose down.) 

10. Ease and relaxation at wheel. 

11. Ohservation of signs. 

H. Class work. 

1. Discuss road laws and point out those that may he confusing to drivers. 

■2. Go over Section VII, of Manual carefully and give illustrations of how and why each 
is a dangerous practice and is undesirahle. 

3. At what distance should headlights reveal persons and ohjects according to law? 

k. Discuss the unusual conditions of mountain driving. 

5. What are some of the special hazards of winter driving? 

6. Discuss them in relation to safety. 

7. Discuss at least 15 methods and markings of the pavement to aid in regulating 
traffic. 



88 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



#* 
#* 



^ 



W 



f 3 

r 5 



UNIT NINE 



Student's Report for Unit Nine 

Name Date Hour of Class 

Section Day 



A. Write answers to questions from assignments with reasons. (See F. ahove) 



3.. 
h.. 

5- 

7. 
10.. 

13.- 

15.- 

16. 

17. 

18.. 

21. 



B. Draw traffic circle and show direction of travel. 



Draw two types of lane lines: (a) one you can cross, (t>) one you cannot cross, 



C. Procedures. Explain how you would drive on a road with loose gravel at the sides, 
If approaching a hill. 



D. Home Study. What practice did you get at home? Give details, 



Graded by. 



Grade assignment 



A JOURNEY THROUGH TRAFFIC 
(Student's introduction to Unit Ten) 

Everyone around you is your friend. They do not want accidents and, comparatively 
speaking, rarely cause accidents. Particularly, trucks and "buses are manned by experi- 
enced drivers. Do not be afraid of them. You probably know as much about your car and 
the basic principles of driving as many of the drivers you meet. Your only need is to be 
cautious . 

If your car has enough gas, water, oil, a charged battery, good tires with proper in- 
flation, and good brakes, you can travel safely if you use your knowledge, skill, and in- 
telligence to help you over the rough places. Check all the items listed above before you 
start on a trip. Being short of gas, or having a dead battery in a down-town congested 
street is anything but a safe situation. The same is true of the other essentials given. 

Try your brake. If the fluid is low you may need to "pump it up" by several movements 
as the first down stroke may not take hold or stop you. In case it requires pumping up, 
take it immediately to a service station and have the brake fluid replenished. If this 
does not help take it to a good mechanic at once. 

It would be well to review certain laws of your state. Where should you stop to 
change a tire? How far can you park from an alley or fire plug? How long can you park on 
main street? Who has the right-of-way at an intersection? Must one have his driver's 
licence with him at all times? Can one pass other cars at intersections? Can you turn 
right on a red light? What do flashing red signal lights mean? Flashing orange lights? 
What are you supposed to do at a railroad? At a traffic circle? At a clover- leaf? Can 
you U-turn between intersections? U-turn at intersections? What is your local speed 
limit? Is it an absolute speed limit, a basic speed law or a prima facie speed law? If 
you don't know the difference between the latter three ask your instructor. 

How close should you be from another car before lowering your headlight beams? Are 
spotlights legal? When may fog-lights be used? What should one do in case of an acci- 
dent? Most motor vehicle departments distribute manuals on all these and many other 
points of law. Remember ignorance of the law excuses no one. 

There are certain trade secrets or tricks in driving. For example, when driving in 
the country stay well to the side of the road or pavement. When on loose gravel or dirt 
roads you may crowd the center as long as the way is clear ahead. When in a storm or go- 
ing over a hill stay well over to the right. It is much safer and if someone should run 
into you the law will be on your side. 

In a crowded street it is better to hug the center unless there are cars coming. 
Moving along close to parked cars is always dangerous. Pedestrians may rush out in front 
of you, wide doors may open from parallel parked cars, or angle parked cars may move 
out suddenly in front of you. Give them a wide berth. 

If you feel you are going to meet someone on a narrow bridge either speed up and ar- 
rive first, or slow down and let the other fellow pass through first. The latter is 
always a safer practice for inexperienced drivers. The same practice holds for herds of 
animals, pedestrians, slow-moving farm vehicles, or bicycle riders. Pass them only where 
you have the whole roadway in which to dodge, if the way is clear ahead. 

When following a heavily loaded truck through hills follow at a safe distance. Try 
to pass him at the first opportunity or stop and ( get refreshments while the truck gets 
ahead of you. Never depend on the blinked lights of a truck driver to assure you of safe 
place to pass. Depend only on your own eyes. 

On wet pavement, snow or ice reduce your speed as much as the traffic will stand. 
It is best to move along with other traffic, but stay at a safe distance behind. When 

-91- 



92 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

applying the "brake, apply it lightly and safely as you get maximum traction when the 
wheels are rolling. Whenever they start to skid release "brake then apply it again. If 
icy you have to use it very carefully or a skid may throw you crosswise of the road. A 
careful re-reading of your text will "bring out many other points you may have overlooked. 
Good luck and safe motoring! '. 

Note : Read the section on newer devices very carefully. A number 
of different controls and shifting devices are now "being 
manufactured . 


















UNIT TEN 
New Types of Intersections and Traffic Driving 

Anyone who can handle his car well and who understands and observes the meaning of 
traffic signs will have little trouble in traffic driving. He should study newer traffic 
controls and know how to negotiate them. 

A. Objectives. 

1. To perfect exercises for control of the car under driving conditions. 

2. To familiar the student with the routine usually followed in the driver's license 
examination. 

3. To develop greater confidence and precision in manipulation of the car. 

k. To call attention to the hazards of traffic driving and ways of avoiding danger. 
5. To give actual road practice in traffic. 

B. Approaches. 

1. Demonstration by the instructor of plastic and miniature models of types of inter- 
sections . 

2. Actual driving through lanes of a model clover-leaf in one-plane diminutive con- 
struction on driving field. 

3. Review of principles for safest and most acceptable driving practices. (See Sec- 
tion VII.) 

k. Traffic and highway driving with staff member. 

C. Procedures. 

1. Show miniature clover-leaf and explain the theory of "slow" and "fast" lanes as they 
apply to the design of the clover-leaf and other intersections. 

2. Discuss very thoroughly the principles of good driving and have supervisor ride with 
student in actual road practice through traffic. 

3. Have learners negotiate the clover-leaf for both right and left turns. Explain that 
to get grade separations and keep traffic speed at proper rate of flow, an actual 
clover-leaf may cover space nearly the size of the driving field. Let them score 
each other on certain points outlined by the instructor. 

k. Staff member will accompany the group through traffic and on the highway. ( Permits 
to be presented before getting behind wheel . ) 

D. Evaluations. 

1. Instructor should score each driver on the Rogers scale. (See Appendix B. ) 

2. Give final test on all readings assigned during the course. Attitude tests will be 
used as needed. 

3. Check on your class lectures as per outline. This may be either oral or written. 
Check on student's notes for form and quality using a rating scale of objective 
nature. Total the work handed In and record grades. 

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9_h LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

E. Reference and notes review. 

1. Credit students should present scrap-book or term paper along with notes taken in 
the courses or other assignments. 

2. Chapters XXII, XXIII, and XXIV, Sportsmanlike Driving . 

3. Review motor code if you do not have a permit. This booklet deserves review occas- 
ionally by every driver as the laws are often changed. 

h. Pages 187-268, Man and the Motor Car . Revised. 

F. Questions on Unit Ten. 

1. Where are traffic circles most frequently found? What section of the country? 

2. How should brakes be used on an icy or slick pavement? 

3. What is a safe distance that one should follow other cars? Is it always the same 
when speeds vary? When road surfaces vary? 

k. Are STOP and other signs or signals always located in the right place? Are they 
always easily seen? Cite some examples. 

5. Where, at the side, should one stop at a STOP sign? Is it necessary to stop more 
than once? 

6. Why should one come up to an intersection slowly and try to hurry out, once he has 
safely entered it? Give statistical reasons for your answer. 

7. Are good drivers (very skillful) always the same as safe drivers? Why? 

8. Why do we ask you to show your permit before going on the road? 

9. Why should one keep his eyes on the road in the distance when driving on the highway' 

10. If children are walking along the road what should you do? If you are about to meet 
another car where the children are walking, what would you do? 

11. Under what conditions could you use a Minnesota license in California? A Massachu- 
setts license in Alabama? 

12. Name 10 things on which a patrol man might fail an applicant for a driver's license. 
(See Section VII.) 

13. When you go for your license would it be best to drive the family car there alone? 
11+ . How far should you park from a hydrant? 

15. If you see no marker how fast should you drive past a school? 

16. Suppose while you are driving you smell something hot or burning. What would you 
look for? Mention at least six things. Should one carry a fire extinguisher in 
his car? 

17. What would you do at a railroad before driving across? Name at least one. 

18. If a fire engine should come down the street as you are driving, what would you do? 

19. Suppose a sudden rain or snow storm blinds you. What would you do when driving? 

20. If a blinding light approaches at night how can you make it easier to see the road? 



UNIT TEN 95 



21. Operate the so-called "dimmer" switch, at what distance from an oncoming car should 
lights he depressed? 

22. Which car has the right-of-way at an intersection? What is the safest rule in this 
respect? 

23. If your front wheel drops off the shoulder of a pavement what should you do? 

2k. Review the steps for starting on a hill. verbalize them in your room and go through 
these steps in pantomime. Why is this important? 

25. Are fog lights extremely valuable? What is a practical substitute in very foggy 
weather? 

26. When going down a long steep hill, what should one do? How can this he accomplished 
if you are travelling quite rapidly as you come to the hill? How will the over- 
drive on most cars affect this? 

27. Will hydraulic brakes always work evenly on all four wheels? If brakes do not work 
evenly what is probably wrong? What can you do to correct it? 

28. What would you do in case of "vapor-lock"? Describe the condition that exists and 
give three ways it can be overcome so you may proceed. 

29. What is meant by a fluid-drive? Which cars have it? (See Section XII.) 

30. What is meant by a "booster" shift? Which cars have it? (See Section XII.) 

31. How does an electric gearshift work? Which cars have used it? (See Section XII.) 

32. How can a coil give you trouble? Give some of the symptoms. 

33. If the points in your distributor (locate them) are bad, what will happen? Could 
you get home with the car? 

3k. Suppose your spark plugs are fouled up? Show how you would locate the bad plug? 
How ought it to be cleaned? 

35. What is meant by "camber"? "Caster"? "Toe-in"? Explain the effects that might be 
produced from these conditions. 

36. What is the purpose of an over-drive? How is it used? (See Section XII.) 

37. What is a hill -holder? Explain how it works. 

38. How can you tell if your steering wheel is loose enough to require attention? Ex- 
plain how you can test it. 

39. What part of the steering mechanism of any car with 20,000 miles or more needs care- 
ful inspection? How can this be done? 

kO. Is lubrication of your car universal joint regularly taken care of by having the 
car greased? 

hi.. Explain what is meant by "packing" your wheel bearing. 

k2. What is meant by "shimmy" in a car? What will cause it? 

ij-3. If you have heavy oil in the fall and it turns cold suddenly, what could you do to 
keep your car starting more easily without changing oil? 

kk. What are some of the danger signals to be observed in hydraulic brakes? Why should 
the hand brake always be kept in excellent working condition? 



96 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

V?. In some cars the speedometer light changes color as you change speed. What does this 
mean? (See Section XII.) 

k6. Describe a symptom, or the result, of continued usage for each of the following tire 
conditions: (a) over-inflation, (h) under- inflation, (c) too much camber, (d) wheels 
out of alignment (e) tires heing driven with very low pressure, (f) hitting curb 
when parking, (g) hitting a rock or sharp object on the road. 

47. When should chains be used? What characteristics should good chains have? 

48. Mention some ways you could get out of a mud hole if only one wheel turns or does 
not get traction. What should you carry in the car for such emergencies? 

k-9 . What are some of the dangers with a bumper jack? What should one carry along with 
a bumper jack if he can find no other type of jack? 

50. Review several principles to be observed for gasoline economy. 

51. Give six basic rules for getting the most mileage from your tires. 

52. Are all speedometers accurate? Why should you know how your speedometer registers? 

53. List some precautions you should take when having your tires serviced. 

54. When having your car lubricated. 

55. When draining your car on a cold night. 

56. When buying a new car. 

57. When driving a strange car. 

58. When driving on a strange road. 

59. When children are in the car. 

60. When overtaking a drunken driver. 

61. When leaving your car on a hill. 

62. When driving through water and rain. 
65. When parking in a city. 

64 . When buying a used car. 

65. When stopping to change a tire on the highway. 

66. How can you tell if your lights are depressed? Are all cars the same? 

67. Under what conditions may a school permit to drive be used? 

G. Exercises in the car. 

There are two main objectives of this Unit and the instructor will see that both 
are properly carried out. If extra time is needed the matter should be taken up early 
enough with the supervisor to make adequate arrangements. These two objectives are: 

1. To prepare the learner for actual manipulation in traffic and to make him aware of 
the many responsibilities a driver must assume when getting behind the wheel of his 
own car. (See questions under F. These should be thoroughly studied by each 
examinee before he attempts to drive on the highway.) 



UNIT TEN 97 



2. To give him actual traffic experience and identify his shortcomings so that he may- 
get them cleared up before taking the driver's license examination. If he has "been 
carefully taken through all the exercises in Section IX given at the "beginning of 
this Manual, little difficulty should he experienced. 

Class work. Discuss the meaning of compensation and how it may he applied in several 
phases of driving. Point out specific ways the backward members of the section may 
compensate to keep out of trouble. 



98 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



UNIT TEN 99 



Name. 



Student's Report for Unit Ten 

Date Hour of Class 



Section Bay 



A. Write answers to the following questions taken from those in the assignment. (See F. 
a"bove ) 



2.- 
3- 
5- 
6.- 

10.- 

17.- 

20.- 
23.. 
26.- 
39.- 
h9.- 



B Draw a sketch showing three lanes of traffic. Your car is in the center lane. Which 
car would you watch? Your car is A. Mark X all those you would need to ohserve care- 
fully. (All three lanes have traffic moving the same direction.) 



C. Procedures. Describe the steps and precautions to "be taken when changing a tire, 

D. Give in a few words your reaction to traffic driving as you have experienced it. 
How many miles have you driven cars other than the training car? 



Graded hy . 



Grade assigned 



r 3 " 



^ 



r- 



r 3 



XII. NEWER AND UNUSUAL CONTROL DEVICES ON AUTOMOBILES 

AND MOTORIZED EQUIPMENT 

During the past few years a number of newer control devices have been used on auto- 
mobiles Some of these have proved satisfactory and are still being used in one form or 
another' Every student of driving should understand the principles underlying those de- 
vices which he may have occasion to use. There are a number of things to be noted about 
each regarding its use in controlling the car; and having it adjusted, replaced or 
serviced A very short explanation of some of the more common of these will be described 
and mention will be made of certain modification in maneuvering of the automobile so 
equipped The specific makes of cars using such devices are only cited as instances 
Many other makes may have used the same device at one time or another and a driver should 
consult his local service garage for details as to any particular make and model of car. 
The following mechanisms need to be understood by the present-day driver. 

A. Gears and Gearshifts. 

1 Booster vacuum shift . In some models of Chevrolet the booster shift is used. This 
is a vacuum shift which does most of the work, the gear lever acting only as an 
initiator of the shift. The only difference between this and the conventional shift 
is that the gears can hardly be shifted except when the motor is running. 

2 Electric gearshift . Certain models of Hudson and Ford have used this type of shift. 
It is the bomb -shaped device on the steering wheel with a little finger-tip switch 

• of the letter "H" design conventionally used in shifting. The shift lever acts mere- 
ly as a selector and the shifting is accomplished by a vacuum mechanism. The motor 
must be running to accomplish a shift. 

5 Automatic clutch . Plymouth came out early with an automatic clutch. This was mere- 
ly a vacuum-operated mechanism which did the shifting for the driver. 

1* The automatic transmission . Oldsmobile introduced an automatic shift which operates 
" entirely automatically and is controlled by the speed of the car. It was only neces- 
sary to get into low when starting and the shifting took care of itself as needed. 

5 Evdromatic drive . This is a patent name used by Oldsmobile and General Motors for 
an improved transmission which is rapidly gaining popularity on cars, buses, and 
other vehicles. It works on the principle of a steam turbine or windmill with an 
oil liquid used as a medium. The motor furnishes the movement of a liquid which is 
picked up by a second bladed wheel as the liquid is non- compressible . Coupled with 
an automatic clutch, this allows a very much simplified set of controls. There is 
no need for a clutch pedal. A small lever on the steering wheel is set for Neutral , 
Drive Low and Reverse , running in a straight line, from left to right. Drive has 
four spiels which are automatically controlled. Low has four speeds which are auto- 
matically controlled. To start out you set the lever at Drive or Low and step on the 
accelerator. All shifting is done automatically. If you come to a hill, you release 
the accelerator for an instant and move to Low. Also in going down a very long hill, 
you move the lever to Low. This holds the car back as shifting into the intermediate 
or low holds back a car with conventional shift. In Drive positions it acts similar- 
ly to free-wheeling. (See number 7 in this section). 

When parking on a grade, either facing up or down, you shift to Reverse. This locks 
the car in place, and it will move neither forward or backward. Buick is reported 
to be coming out with a modification of this principle in which the lever is en- 
tirely omitted. 

6. Fluid-drive . This is another type of fluid transmission used by Chrysler. It dif- 
fers somewhat from the hydromatic, one feature being that the car has a clutch. The 
conventional type of steering-wheel shift is used as shifting lever, but it has only 

-101- 



102 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY ^ 

four positions which are conventional. The difference lies in the fact that each of 
the low and second positions has a different gear ratio and one must shift the lever 
according to the gear desired. Within each of the two, Low and High ranges, the two ^ 
gears are automatically selected. 

I 
On mountains or in traffic one usually drives in Low range. It is possible and 
generally recommended that one should not change ranges or depress the clutch at a (f 

stop sign. By letting up on the accelerator the power is diminished and the motor 
may he slowed down so it will merely hold the car stationary as a brake; i.e., just 
enough pull to keep it from rolling hack. It is not necessary to depress the clutch 
except when changing ranges. 

When parking a fluid-drive on a hill, it is quite necessary to have the hand "brake 
in first-class condition as the gears of the present models do not hold it in posi- 
tion. The latter two devices are quite well established and if gasoline driven 
automobiles, using the reciprocation principle, continue to prevail, some form of 
liquid transmission will undoubtedly become universally used. Dodge uses a slightly 
different system but employs the fluid transmission as a connecting link. 

7. Free -wheeling . This principle was first popularized by Hupmobile. It is merely the 
bicycle coaster brake principle applied to the driving mechanism of an automobile. 
When the car moves faster than the motor it is free from it. The motor pulls only 
when it moves faster than the drive shaft in high gear. Usually, a special lever or 
cable control makes the device optional at the user's discretion. It never became 
popular when used by itself, but many of the overdrives used on cars today have this 
feature connected with the overdrive . 

Only one or two makes of car use a two-way control or positive connection when in 
overdrive . This is important to know since most 'cars with an overdrive will not be 
held on a hill by the motor when in overdrive especially when headed down hill. It 
is necessary to move the control lever or cable into conventional before putting the 
car in reverse gear and setting the hand brake. 

8. Over-drive . This is merely a step-up gear mechanism which operates in high gear. 
Usually it reduces the speed of the motor about one -third at speeds above 35-40 miles 
an hour when it goes into effect by the driver releasing the accelerator momen- 
tarily. When reducing speed, it becomes ineffective and automatically goes back to 
conventional at speeds below 35-^0 miles per hour. Most cars with overdrive features 
have a special automatic release for passing. When in overdrive one presses the ac- 
celerator firmly to the floor and an electric control changes the gear back to con- 
ventional, thus increasing the pick-up of the car for ease in passing. 

Most cars have a cable or rod-control knob in the center or left below the dash or 
instrument panel. To go to overdrive , you slow down usually to about 5-10 miles an 
hour, depress the clutch and push knob all the way in . This is important . If you 
stop at a half way position, it may ruin your overdrive. The length of movement 
necessary to go into overdrive is usually 3-U inches. The overdrive will save a 
great deal of gas and oil under certain conditions of driving but, because of the 
free-wheeling feature, it may also cause greater use and consequently greater wear 
of the brakes. One may go into overdrive at higher speeds but it is usually safer 
to slow down as described. 

9. Electric gear transmission . A few experimental cars have had electric transmissions 
but experiments at Iowa State College and by the motor vehicle manufacturers have not 
proved them satisfactory. It may be that light weight Diesel engines made to fit 
passenger cars, eventually may necessitate some form of change in electrical trans- 
mission which has been used, in effect, on streamline trains and trucks. 

B. Brakes and holding devices. 

Automotive engineers have spent a great deal of time perfecting brakes and yet they 
still remain a long way from being ideal. As a driver you will need to learn all 



NEWER AND UNUSUAL CONTROL DEVICES 105 



you can about the Drakes of your car and how they operate. The ideal _ brake is one 
that works equally effectively at the beginning and end of your stopping space. 
Brake linings may soften, due to the heat of friction, and become less effective as 
you approach a stop. Again, they may he working efficiently when starting on a trip 
hut become inefficient at the end. The self-energizing principle was used by many 
makers of automobiles at one time but has been found to be dangerous, particularly 
on slippery pavement. If your car is seven or eight years old, it may have_this type 
of brake and you will need to be very cautious when braking to keep from going into 
a skid. 

1 Mechanical brakes . A few years ago practically all brakes were mechanical. They 
' were operated from the pedal by rods or cables. In the winter these rods or cables 
would sometimes freeze. The brakes would thus freeze on or off. Improved design 
has largely eliminated this trouble. If your car has mechanical brakes, you will 
need to have them oiled and otherwise serviced at regular intervals to avoid trouble. 

2 . Vacuum brakes are used on trailers but have been found too slow for regular use on 
cars . 

3. Air brakes are used on trains and commercial trucks and vehicles, but are generally 
too violent in their present state of development for passenger cars. According to 
Prof. E. A. Moyer, University of California, the ideal brake would never actually al- 
low the wheel to come to a stop or slide. It should automatically release at the 
point where it will start to slide, as a complete stopping of the wheel causes the 
vehicle to skid otherwise. Until further developments are made, you will not find 
air brakes as regular equipment on cars. A few specially built cars have used them 
with some degree of success. 

l +> Electric brakes . Some trailer manufacturers use electric brakes but they are 

troublesome in coastal areas where salt water may corrode the connections. Commer- 
cial companies have not used them on passenger cars except possibly for experimental 
purposes. 

5, Hydraulic brakes . So far the hydraulic brake has been almost universally adopted in 
passenger car construction. It seems to be as trouble-free as any brake so far de- 
veloped although there are a number of precautions to be taken by one driving a car 
so equipped. Here are a few: 

a. Learn how to use them. A violent pressure on the pedal has a temporary locking 
effect which may cause a car to skid. This experience is often noted when one 
changes from older mechanical brake models which require greater pedal pressure 
to stop. 

b. Keep enough fluid in the system to make your pedal effective in the "outer" 
position. If you need to push your pedal completely down before it takes hold, 
there is something wrong. It may be that you need a refill of brake fluid, 
your master cylinder is bad, or your system is leaking at some point. Have it 
checked at once . It is dangerous to drive a car in this condition. 

c. Air in the line may be due to a leak or because of heat built up on a long hill. 
The fluid vaporizes and you may have to "pump" your pedal more than once to 
cause it to take hold at all. In such cases it may be all right when it cools 
down or it may have to be "bled" . 

6. Hand brakes are legally required to be mechanical in most states and separate from 
the foot-brake. They are one of the weakest features of modern automobiles and must 
be carefully nursed along until manufacturers see fit to improve them. The cables 
either stretch or break, the ratchet doesn't work, there is not enough leverage, one 
can't tell when they are released, or can't reach under far enough to release them. 
Some models of Buick can't be shifted into gear until the hand -brake is completely 
off. This is an excellent feature and should be universally adopted by manufacturers. 
Always keep your hand-brake so it will hold your car when on a hill. It may help you 
stop if your other brakes fail, but it is in no sense an "emergency brake" as former- 
ly called. 



« 



101+ LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



Electric retarders have teen perfected which keep cara or trucks at a uniform speed 
all the way down a steep hill. The friction is dissipated as heat resulting from 
high amperage generators. They are still in the experimental stage hut show much 
promise . 

The hill -holder . A patent feature of Studehaker is the hill -holder. It is a simple 
device so constructed as to hold the foot-hrake on hy pressure on the clutch if the 
"brake is applied firmly hefore the clutch is pressed forward. In other words if 
your car has this type of "brake and stalls on a hill, proceed as follows: Put on 
your foot "brakes firmly. Now push your clutch down immediately and hy exerting pres- 
sure it will hold the car while you put your foot hack to the accelerator to start 
forward again. When the motor is accelerated to a sufficient point, let clutch out 
and move on up the hill. It is a fine feature hut one must he careful when "being 
towed with the motor in gear as the clutch may he holding the "brakes on. 



C. Lights. 

Most cars since 19^1 use Seal-heam light units. This is a combination reflector and 
hulh unit which plugs into the headlight socket like a 3-prong lamp cord. A metal 
rim is usually employed to hold it in place and hy taking out three or four screws, 
it may easily he removed. There were originally two forms "built: (a) those made 
with a metal hack or reflector with a rigid pre-focus hulh, and (h) those made en- 
tirely of glass and glass filled. 

The advantages greatly outweight the disadvantages of these lamps over the old style 
type. Theoretically pre-focused and constant, they may get out of focus due to sag- 
ging of filaments. The glass hack retains its characteristics hetter and lasts 
longer while the metal hack with huilt-in hulh will still serve if the lens is 
"broken. The all-glass design is completely and instantaneously ruined if cracked 
and the gas escapes. 

Care must he taken to have Seal-heams properly directed. They cannot he focused. 
If out of focus, it is necessary to "buy a new one. 

D, Signalling devices. 

For the most part such devices are limited to efforts of a few makers, like Buick 
to furnish as standard equipment some form of indicator lights on the hack of the 
car. This feature is due for a high degree of development and some standardization 
within the next few years, as drivers apparently will not consistently roll down a 
window and give the proper hand signal in had weather. 

Several patent devices are on the market as auxiliary equipment, hut no standard de- 
sign has prevailed. Some have flashing red lights, some have flashing orange lights, 
some have enclosed arrows and similar devices. They are to he highly recommended 
when they work, and if understood hy motorists. One driver, returning to an eastern 
state from a prolonged stay ahroad complimented drivers he passed on their courtesy 
for indicating hy pointer that he was to pass. Actually, they were signalling for a 
left turn and he was saved from a crack-up largely hy carefulness and caution of the 
drivers he passed at such points. In some states commercial vehicles are required 
to he equipped with such lights while in others they are not recognized on passenger 
cars . 

The controls on signalling devices vary. On some types they push the lever and hring 
it hack to the original position manually after turning. On others you need only 
touch the control momentarily and it returns the normal position automatically as 
soon as released. On some others the lever is moved to the indicating position and 
the steering wheel returns it when you straighten the wheel after a turn. 

The main things you should ask yourself or consider are: (a) Does the car I am 
driving have such a device? (h) How does it work? (c) Is it legally accepted in 
my state? 



NEWER AND UNUSUAL CONTROL DEVICES 105 



E. Air conditioners. 

The old-fashioned heater is largely obsolete and the air conditioner is in common 
usage. It draws the air in from outside the car and warms it to the desired temper- 
ature. Some manufacturers equip the unit with a thermostatic control which is very 
desirable. The effectiveness of these devices as cooling units in summer is ques- 
tionable. An air conditioner with dry ice container has been used on the side of 
the car which fits above the door glass. It may cool the car some but would be a 
disadvantage by restricting the vision of the driver, especially if used in a coupe 
or two-door coach. 

Air conditioners usually have defrosting attachments if located on the dash and the 
circulating fan may be run at different speeds. The latter features are better 
sales points than they are practical from the standpoint of increased utility or 
comfort. Any car which is fitted with an air conditioner, drawing air from out- 
side, will help a great deal in keeping the frost off windows by increasing the cir- 
culation in winter. Opening a wing -window slightly on each side will produce the 
same effect with somewhat less comfort. 

Owners of devices for cooling the car by dry ice or water are not enthusiastic about 
them. It is better to take deserts by night. 

F. Individual wheel suspension. 

The riding qualities are being improved a great deal by knee -action and individual 
wheel suspension. Some of the older models were troublesome, having a tendency to 
lay over on the side at corners unless equipped with stabilizers, and amateur drivers 
should note this tendency, as it is quite disconcerting the first time it happens. 
Some cars have all four wheels operate on this principle. 

G. Steering mechanisms. 

A great deal of improvement and standardization has been made in this respect. 
Older cars differed a great deal in the amount of turning necessary to round a corner. 
When changing cars, note this difference. Some have reversible steering. Others do 
not. Eeversible steering is a feature of construction which causes a car to tend to 
straighten after turning a corner. Don't depend on it. Do your own turning in any 
case and keep both hands on the wheel. 

Some cars will tend to wander unless perfectly aligned. Others tend to pull to the 
low side of the road. Others are hard to turn from a pull to the low side of the 
road. Others are hard to turn from a straight course. Proper alignment, tire in- 
flation, and regular lubrication will remedy most irregularities of steering. You 
must learn the characteristics of the car you drive. If a car "shimmys" get it to 
a garage at once . 

Stay away from "spinners". They are not only unnecessary but are dangerous. A 
"spinner" is a knob attached to the steering wheel to turn it with one hand. 

H. Tires. 

Tires have been improved a great deal. Puncture -proof tubes are too heavy and are 
not generally recommended. Double tube or "life guard" construction is very much 
worthwhile from the standpoint of safety as well as economy in tire costs over a 
period of years. They save both tubes and casings. 

Tires made from synthetic rubber do not give as good traction as natural rubber. 
More care must be taken on ice, snow, or slippery pavement. 

Differences in tread designs are much overplayed. Experimentally there is no great 
difference in skidding characteristics of tire treads. Chains may be detrimental, 
especially if cross-chains are too far apart. Whenever driving on slick or slippery 



106 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

pavement one must be extremely careful. Speeds should "be reduced to 30-60 per cent 
of normal at highest. 

I, Throttle and choke. 

Most larger cars of later model have no hand or dash throttle or choke control. The 
automatic choke sometimes gets out of order and after warming up, it may "be hard to 
restart the motor on a cold day. It is "best to "become familiar with the character- 
istics of the car and learn how to avoid unnecessary starting under such conditions. 

J. Starter. 

There are two types of starters in common use although the Bendix is rapidly becom- 
ing universal equipment. It is actuated by touching a button which rotates the 
starting motor, engaging the gears by a spiral screw effect. When the motor starts, 
it kicks out. Occasionally, a buzzing sound results when the starter button is 
touched. The same result is obtained if the Bendix spring is broken. In such case 
you will need to have your car towed to start it. Never push others or allow others 
to push you . Use a tow chain . 

The other type of starter employs the principle of the starter gear's being engaged 

before the starting motor turns over. A danger from this type of starter is that 

the gear may be engaged when the motor is running. In this case the gears may be 

damaged or the starter armature is thrown. Caution in the use of these starters 

should be exercised at all times. ™ 

A final point on starters should be brought out. There are some ten or more differ- | 

ent places where the starter may be found. Here are a few: (a) floor button, (b) 

button on dash, (c) lever on dash, (d) pull-out button on dash, (e) on the key switch | 

(automatic when key is turned), (f) on accelerator which throws out automatically 

after starting, (g) at floor under clutch which starts car when pushed to the floor, g 

(h) by pulling up the horn button. There are some variations on these eight specific 

types. Be sure you ask about the starter when you drive a strange car. No one is ^ 

expected to know all these things. 

K. Supplement on Latest Developments. More recently two or three newer devices have come I 

on the market and should be discussed here. 

i 

1. Dynaflow . A patented form of fluid drive used by Buick which eliminates the mechan- 
ical gearshift mechanism. So far as operation is concerned it is about the same as | 
that used by Oldsmobile, but instead of leaving the car in reverse gear to hold it 

in position, a fifth point on the gearshift lever indicates standing position. I 

2. Electro-vacuum clutch . Packard is using a special form of vacuum clutch which func- 
tions automatically. The mechanism may be rendered inactive by a special switch and % 
thus standard operation attained. 

3. Stationary brake -lock . Dodge and possibly other cars have a special brake-lock 

mechanism which holds the car in position by compressing the hydraulic fluid. It | 

eliminates danger from runaway cars having fluid-drive. 

h. Drivemaster . Hudson uses a form of automatic shift similar bo the G-eneral Motors 
and Chrysler line of newer developments which works on the same general principle. 
It can be set for automatic or manual control of the clutch, the same as Packard. ' 

L. Miscellaneous. ™ 

On newer cars door handles have been designed so that they will not catch on your f 

clothing. Locks are placed on both sides for convenience. Many locks are designed 
so that you can lock yourself in the car, but can't lock yourself out. Ash trays j 

are provided to reduce the fire hazard. 



NEWER AND UNUSUAL CONTROL DEVICES 107 



Learn all about these features of your personal car before you start to drive. It 
will save you much embarrassment and trouble. 

M. Tractor and truck operation. 

Since some drivers may have the opportunity or need to operate a tractor or truck, 
a few differences and precautions should he noted. When you get on a tractor, 
remember : 

1. The gears on tractors and trucks vary so much that they are usually marked 1, 
2 3 h 5 6 and R or the total number of gears available. Some shift to a 
high' or' low range like army vehicles. Some small trucks have to lock back at 
right or left into reverse. Some have a special lever to engage front wheel 
drive. Do not be embarrassed to ask how they work. Learn before you get into 
motion. 

2. Tractors in general must be stopped to change gears. 

3 Tricycle tractors upset easily. Watch carefully on hillsides, on corners, and 
at ditches. Also in driving too fast over a rough field. In driving gear they 
may upset if one wheel strikes a bump. 

k Tractor brakes normally work separately and help turn the tractor. Most of 

them have a link to connect them for highway driving. Setting one brake sharp- 
ly when driving in road gear may upset the tractor if the brakes are not 
coupled. 

5. Some larger tractors use fuel oil but start on gasoline. Be sure you know the 
correct procedure. Know your tractor before you crank it when a starter is not 
available . 

These few principles will help with smaller trucks and tractors. For large equipment 
you should have special training before attempting to drive at all and responsible 
companies see that you serve sufficient apprenticeship before driving. 



XIII. APPENDIX 
Introduction to the Appendix 

The Appendix is of primary interest to the instructor and a word on the use of each 
item will "be given here. Section A contains specific suggestions for handling classes in 
driver training including certain procedures and patterns which strengthen the program if 
properly carried out. The local situation may call for variation on these procedures. 

Section B deals with tests and other devices for evaluating and recording a student's 
progress. Certain of them should "be used regularly although any school may wish to devise 
or use its own system of records. These devices will "be discussed categorically. 

1. The enrollment card. Since classes meet in groups of four, it is advisable in 
our school to place as much responsibility as possible on the student. This card 
provides for a type of contract signed "by the student. It helps him assume his 
responsibility. 

2. Some record similar to the laboratory Form with scheduled tests, should "be used to 
evaluate the learner's physical qualifications as a driver. It may "be abbreviated 
to go on the cumulative record card if such are used. 

3. The Clinical Record Form is a subjective rating made by the instructor. It may be 
briefed the same as No. 2 for permanent records. 

k. The Visual Examination Form is used for special cases of doubtful vision. It 

might well be submitted to a vision specialist as a basis for an evaluation of the 
student who is borderline with respect to legal requirements for driving vision. 

5. The Rogers-Lauer Scale should be used to check the progress of the student. It is 
a fair indication of his skill at the wheel when properly checked. No one should 
be allowed to take a driver's examination unless he has a score of 25-30 at least. 
We recommend that it be used two or three times during the course. 

6. The Miller-Iauer form was designed for research in evaluating performance. It may 
be used in occasional cases. 

7. This form may be used for a final check of driving performance at the end of the 
course . 

8. For a general check of problem cases the driving field test may be used occasional- 
ly. 

9. This form is of more theoretical importance but may be used occasionally. 

10. The form for checking cars should be required as home-work for every beginning 
student of driving. 

11. These questions may be used for any evaluation purpose, as a test for service clubs 
etc. See answers at the end of this section. 

12. Is a convenient form for keeping mileage records on drivers. It may be very help- 
ful in making reports to those loaning cars. 

Section C contains an adequate but conservative statement of equipment needed for 
driver training if the work is up to par. It should be studied carefully. 

Section D is a list of films and visual training materials available for use with 
driver training. 

-108- 



APPENDIX 



109 



Section E gives the general plan of driving course designs and equipment used for 
driver testing and training at different places. It contains a number of suggestions 
which have "been used successfully by various schools throughout the country. A note is 
attached to each with acknowledgment of the source. 

Section F is included as a guide to the principles of driver testing. It is probably 
best to use a few simple tests at first and later, if feasible, to go into the more elabo- 
rate equipment. In any case, it is the scientific use of these devices which makes them 
valuable in driver training. In general, it is perhaps best to work out standardizations 
for the local situation rather than to depend upon national norms. 

Section G- shows a form of attitude test used for checking attitudes of drivers. This 
phase of driver training is very important. Only a part of the items are significant, the 
others being fillers . Three scores, X attitudes towards law, Y attitudes towards people, 
and Z attitudes towards risk may be calculated by using the respective keys. 



Answers to Questions in Test 11, "Are You a Safe Driver?" 



1. 


Wrong 


6. 


Wrong 


11. 


Right 


16. 


Wrong 


21. 


Right 


2. 


Wrong 


7. 


Right 


12. 


Right 


17. 


Right 


22. 


Right 


5. 


Eight 


8. 


Right 


13. 


Right 


18. 


Right 


23. 


Right 


k. 


Wrong 


9. 


Right 


Ik. 


Wrong 


19. 


Right 


2k. 


Right 


5. 


Wrong 


10. 


Wrong 


15. 


Right 


20. 


Right 


25. 


Wrong 



General Regulations for Students and Instructors 

A. In teaching, one of the first principles is the willingness to accept responsibility. 
In fact, no prospective employer is interested in an unreliable person. Every teacher 
should be punctual and prompt at every assignment and should be prepared to give some- 
thing worthwhile each period. An outline of each assignment should be made out by the 
instructor on the master-assignment sheet which has been given to every trainee. It is 
the instructor's responsibility to cover these assignments systematically, in class, 
and to follow the driver-training outline for the roadwork when in the car. Full time 
should be given students each period and each given a chance at the wheel. 

The following should be reported to the supervisor immediately: 

1. Repeated absences from class. 

2. Cases of deficiency in physical, emotional, or mental make-up of the learner. 

3. Any disorder or maladjustment of the training car. 

k. Any hazard, disturbing influence or irregularity existing on the training field. 

5. Any late entries in the class and the need for special instruction by such per- 
sons, or others who are slow to learn. 

6. Any personality clashes which may arise between learners. 

7. A timid person may sometimes be helped by being shifted to another section. 

8. Any cases in which the learner presents a special problem to the instructor. 

9. Keep all regular forms in class room or laboratory with records up-to-date at all 
times . 

10. Leave key at designated place at all times. This is necessary to conserve every- 
one's time. It may save you five minutes not to return the key. It usually re- 



110 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

suits in wasting 30 minutes or more for the supervisor, the next instructor and 
four learners . 

11. Emergencies . Emergencies will happen. Be prepared to handle them. 

a. Raining hard. If in the car, continue to practice and trade time with other 
class if they do not appear at once on account of rain. 

"b. Instructor becomes ill on way to class. Get another authorized instructor 
to take "both groups and handle them. Do not dismiss any class unless all 
college classes are officially closed . 

c. Car not on field . It will "be there soon or information on its whereabouts 
will "be known at the office. 

d. Car out of gas, needs water, or tire low. Report to supervisor or assistant 
in charge at once if you cannot take care of it yourself. Look for reserve 
supplies. They will "be in the trunk of the car. 

12. Allow no children to play on the field or ride in the car at any time. 

lj. Keep all learners in the car during the lesson and practice period. Each can 

learn from the others if their attention is properly directed. The same is true 
of the classroom period. 

1^. Have any student who must miss a lesson trade with someone else, if possible. It 
is his responsibility to make such arrangements. 

15. Refer all points of questionable conduct or procedure immediately to the super- 
visor. 

16. In case there are less than four in a class the following minimum obligation of 
time is assumed by the college for regular group fees paid: 

a. Four in class - 15 hours. 

b. Three in class - 12 hours. 

c. Two in class - 9 hours. 

d. One in class - 6 hours. 

17. However, unless considered as special groups the full fifteen hours will be given 
and small sections will be used as special help classes. No class should be 
shortened in length by instructor unless authorized by supervisor. 

18. Regular classes may be given in two forms of schedules: 

a. Ten periods of each given twice a week. This schedule works best for spring 
and summer sessions. Any special help and the driver's license is given as 
extra time over and above the 15 hours in the car. 

b. Ten periods of each given once a week. This works best in fall and winter 
and for some sections in spring. Any special help and the license examina- 
tion is given extra. 

19. The period is divided to give 25 per cent of total time in the classroom and 75 per 
cent behind the wheel. 

Ten period classes allow about 20 to 25 minutes in class and at least 80 minutes 
behind the wheel. Each learner gets l/k of the time behind the wheel. This 
division of time should be scrupulously followed. 



APPENDIX 



111 



B. Devices used for Keeping Records and Evaluating Driving 
1, Type o f Special Enrollment Card. 



DRIVER EDUCATION AND TRAINING FEE CARD. L. kk. 



Fall 



Win, 



Spr, 



1st half 2nd half 
Summer 



19 ^ 



Division 



I.S, 



Ens . Ai 



H.Ec. 



Vet. 



Nori 
Coll, 



Name. 



.Student: Yes 



.No 



Last 



First 



Middle 
Phone 



College Address 

Home Addre s s — 

Height: ft in Weight Its. Date of Birth:. 



Hrs . carried 



.Age: years. 



.months. 



Conditions to he considered hefore ohtaining license: (Aids, training, etc 

Drivers license:. Yes No Makes of cars driven: 

Notes and reports 



Grade: Classwork 
12 3 



.Final 



Training Record hy Periods 
k 5 6 7 8 9 



10 



Practical 



Mark each period as follows: P present, or a grade when exam is given: 
A absent. (Contd. on opposite side) 



Instructor. 



Section 



Class hours, 



DRIVER EDUCATION AND TRAINING FEE CARD (Continued) 



1. Do you agree to he punctual each time? 

2. Do you agree to attend regularly each period? 

3. Do you agree to prepare for, and take all examinations?— 

k. Do you agree to prepare faithfully all reading assignments? 

5. Do you agree to hand in all notes and reading on class assignments?. 

6. Do you agree to do everything necessary to secure the course 



certificate? 



I have read the conditions of enrollment and agree to abide by them. 

I have read the regulations relating to the course and will do my best 
to comply. 



Signature of learner: 



Date 



Name of parent or guardian: (If under 18) 

Fee paid: $ Date Received by 

Suggestions by instructor as to qualifications of learner: 



112 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



2. Laboratory Record Form 



Name. 



Date 



Number 



I. Experience with Motor Vehicle. Signature of Examiner. 

1 . Driving - Cars Driven Years Driven . 

2. Knowledge of motor vehicles 

3. Total travel in miles - Bus 

k. States you have lived 

5. Cities you have lived 

6. Driver's License 



.Attitude Score 



.Total mileage 



Car. 



Train 



Airplane 



Chauffeur's License 



II. Basic Physical Qualifications (Minimum essential tests starred] 
Letter Rating A-B-C-D-E. 



1. Heiaht 



.Weight 



.Health. 



2. Physical conformation (describe) 



*3. Strength - R L R L Average 

*k . Activity - 1 2 3 k Ave , 

5. Vision (General rating) 



a. Acuity - With glasses - R L B 

Without glasses - R L B 

b. Astigmatism - R Out In L Out In 

c. Lateral phorias - Eso. Exo. 



.k. 



d. Vertical phorias - R. Hyper 

L. Hyper 

*e. Ocular dominance 1 2 3_ 

5 6 7 

*f. Field of vision - R L B 

*g. Color vision Number right. 



*h. Glare tolerance 1 
i. Other conditions 



3 



k 



5- 



III. Mechanical Aptitude. 

*1. O'Connor Block Test 1. Time Blocks 

*2. Distance Judgment - Near Middle 

3. Traffic Maze Test - 1 2 3 k Total 

k. Drivometer - Contacts Time Errors. 



Far 



5. Neural Stability - Resistance 

Change 



IV. General Rating on Qualifications as a Driver - 






A B C+ C 



D E 



APPENDIX 113 



3. Clinical Record Form . 



Iowa State College Driving Laboratory. Form J-kk 
Number General Rating 



I. General Information. 

1. Name Address 

2. Reason for learning to drive 

3. Handedness - R L. Both. 

k. Evident physical defect. 



II. Training Record (Quizzes used during course). Mark as A, B, C, D, and E for ex- 
cellent, good, average, fair, and poor respectively. 

1. Test 1 2. Test 2 . 3. Test 3 

k. Attendance 

5. Attitude 



6. Manipulation. 

7. Preparation— 

8. Observation _ 



9. Smoothness of operation. 

10. Parking 

11. Zigzag 



12. Line driving 

13 . Backing 



Ik. Hand signals. 



15-. -Starting on a hill. 
16. Turning 



17. Adaptation of speed. 



18. General road driving. 



19. Knowledge of road laws. 



20. Knowledge of motor vehicle 



Suggestions for improving your driving. 



Signed . 



Examiner and Instructor 



114 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



k . Visual Examination Record. L-^Q. 

Name 

Sex Age Date 



Address. 



.Wear Glasses? 



Yes 



No 



Grade or Class 

Ishihara Test: 
Remarks : 



Number: 



12 



Scholastic Average 

6 5 7^ 2 6 5 7 



Reading Rate. 
26 k2 



3. Astigmatic Index (Without Glasses) 



r* 



Remarks : 



Right. Out. 

Out. 
left. Out. 

Out. 



.In. 
.In. 
.In. 
.In. 



.Difference. 
.Difference. 
.Difference. 
.Difference, 



(With glasses, 



Right. 


Out 


Tn 


Di fference 


Out 


Tn 


Di ffRTRnce 


left. 


Out 
Out 


Tn 
Tn 


Ti ffpypnnp 
Ttf ffprpnrp 



h. Vision (without glasses. 



Right 
left 
Both . 



Vision (with glasses) 



Right 

left 

Both 



Remarks : 



Examiner 



5 . Glare Tolerance . 



Night Vision Index 



Mean 



Mean. 



Muscular Condition of Eyes: 

Exophoria 

Esophoria 



9. 
10, 



R. Hyperphoria 

1. Hyperphoria 

Strahismus: In. 

Distance Judgment: 
Ocular Dominance — 



.Out. 



degrees, 
.degrees, 
.degrees, 
.degrees. 
-Up 






Down. 



Total. 



Field of Vision - R. 



Total. 



APPENDIX 



115 




Distance Judgment 

This is more than stereopsis or mere depth perception. The images 
of the small cars are reflected in a high grade mirror giving the effects 
of shadows, perspective and other variables affecting this ability. 

Younger drivers are usually not skilled in this respect and much 
emphasis needs to be placed upon development of this ability. 






116 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



5. Rogers -Lauer Driver Training Inventory or Scale. 



ROGERS-LAUER DRIVER -TRAINING INVENTORY 
Name of Rater 



Name. 
Sex_ 



.Date. 



Rides: Bicycle. 



.Age. 



.Driving Experience 



Months 



.Horse. 



Motorcycle, 



How Long. 



.Years 



Directions : Check the driver according to the trait which fits him best. Check one and 
only one item under each Roman numeral. The points to he assigned are as follows: (Do 
not consider these values until you have checked driver.) Item 1 is given 5, item 2 is 
given k } item 3 is given 3, item k is given 2, and item 5 is given 1, except Roman Numeral 
TV which is weighted 2, 3, 5, k, and 1 from top to "bottom. 



I. ATTENTION 

1. Good concentration 

2. Somewhat easily distracted 

3. Easily distracted 

k. Somewhat easily confused 
5. Easily confused 

II. OBSERVATION AND ALERTNESS 

1. Quick, accurate 

2. Accurate, methodical 

3. Slow hut accurate 

k. Quick hut inaccurate 
5. Slow, inaccurate 

III. EMOTIONAL CONTROL 

1 . Very calm 

2. Calm 

3. More or less calm 
k. Somewhat nervous 
5. Very timid 

IV. ATTITUDE 

1. Conceited, "show-off" 

2. Over-confident 

3. Alert, confident 

h. Hesitant, somewhat timid 
5. Very timid 

V. EFFORT AND WORK ATTITUDE 
1. Concentrates on task 
Interested in task 



VI. KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING 



2. 

3. 
k. 

5. 



Indifferent to task 

Seems "bored 

Contempt for task, cynical 



Complete, detailed knowledge 
Knows most points 
General-not detailed 
Knows few points 
Complete lack of knowledge 



VII. MASTERY OF INSTRUCTIONS 

1. Comprehends instructions, 
asks questions 

2. Listens closely to 
instructions 

3. Digresses from instructions 
h. Instructions need repeating 
5. Uninterested, does not try 

VIII. POSITION 

1 . Easy, relaxed 

2 . Somewhat relaxed 

3. Slightly tense 
k. Very nervous 
5. "Freezes up" 

IX. MOVEMENTS 



Quick, confident 
Smooth, consistent 
Slow, correct 



1, 

2, 

3. 

k. Hesitant, jerky 

5. Confused, erroneous 

MECHANICAL AND SPACE JUDGMENT 

1. At home with machines 

2. Somewhat mechanically 
inclined 

3. Understands general points 
k. Lacks mechanical ability 
5. Gross lack of mechanical 

ingenuity 



•^ 



Score 



APPENDIX 



117 



6. Mlller-Lauer Driving Ability Test, 



Student, 



Grade 



Eater . 



A. Elementary Procedures 

1. Pre-starting check 

2. Starting engine 

3. Smooth shifting 

k. Observation of signs and 

traffic when moving 
5. Observation at KR 

B. Maneuvering in Traffic 

1. Steering 

2. Left turn in clover-leaf 

3. Right turn in clover-leaf 
k. Hand signals 

5. Traffic light 

6 . Use of horn 

7. Turns in traffic circle 

8. Precise turning 

9. Smooth acceleration 
10. Smooth stopping 

C . Automobile Manipulation 

1. Angle parking technique 

2. Parallel parking 

3. Zigzag forward 
k. Zigzag backward 

5 . Backing on a line 

D. Mental Manipulation 

1 . Driving judgment 

2. Self-assurance 

3. Eelaxation while driving 
k. Full attention to driving 
5. Attitude towards the rules 

of the road 



Make certain the student has a good method 
of checking the car before trips, uses the 
six steps for starting and that he checks 
his instruments after starting. He should 
refrain from racing the engine, and be 
able to shift gears without taking the 
eyes off the traffic. In all turns and 
maneuvering, make certain the student 
knows which lanes to use, and gives the 
proper hand signals for various maneuvers. 
He should handle the car with definite 
assurance, and should allow plenty of mar- 
gin for safety. 

Stress saving fenders in this section of 
the test, and put the student in positions 
which will require him to use judgment 
enough to make a second try at something 
rather than hit a stanchion. 



Fill this section out carefully, because 
these are the points that differentiate 
between a skillful car handler and a safe 
driver. A good driver is not afraid of 
his car, takes no chances, relaxes in his 
seat but keeps his full attention on traf- 
fic. He does his utmost to obey the rules 
of the road and to be sportsmanlike to 
other drivers . 



GRADING: 


Superior 


(A) 


- k points 




Very good 


(B) 


- 3 " 




Average 


(C) 


- 2 " 




Fair 


(D) 


- 1 " 




Poor 


(E) 


- " 



The test will start from the garage on the driving field, and will work north and west 
to the 135 degree turn at the extreme WW corner of the field. At this point all of the 
elementary procedures will have been accomplished, and the car will be driven south to the 
first intersection where it will be ready to accomplish the clover-leaf from the west. 
The left turn in the clover-leaf will bring you out on the NW avenue from where two suc- 
ceeding right turns will bring you back into the clover-leaf from the east. The right turn 
in the clover-leaf will bring you back to NW avenue to the third intersection for another 
left turn which will take you through a traffic light. At this intersection make a left 
turn and 200 feet north make another left turn to enter the traffic circle from the east. 
Leave the traffic circle to the south on the horse shoe drive; now proceed to the cinder 
parking lot via the southern tip of the course where the other tests will be completed. 



* 
f 



118 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

r" 

7. Driving Field Teat . ^ 

V 

Name . (19^0 Revision) Rater. 

Supplementary to AAA Field 
H. A. White and A. R. lauer 
( Instructor ratings: for failure, 1 for fair, 2 for good, 3 for excellent ) €^ 

I. Beginning to Park . 

a. Starting engine "b. Smoothness c. Gear shifts 

d. Looks for traffic at intersection e. Hand signals 

f. Observes R.R .. 

Total Score 

II. Parking (Parallel) 

a. Hand signal for stop. 



b. Can park properly and easily 

c. Parks in less than two minutes, 

d. Looks for traffic when pulling out. 



Total Score- 



Ill. To Angle Parking and Allied Maneuvers , 
a. Signals - for turns 



b. Drives in for oil (executes smooth stop and backing ) 

c. Angle parking - observes parking regulations . 



Total Score 

IV. Southwest Corner to End . 

a. Precision in backing . 

b. Observes signs . 

c . Sounds horn . 

d. Stop-sign 

e. Attitude (towards procedures in general) . 

(A B C D E) 

f. Time for trip (Mulitply by 6) Minutes Seconds 

Total Score 



Total number of points 

possible Score 



APPENDIX ^9 

8. I. S. C. DRIVER -TRAINING PRACTICAL TEST - REVISED (19^3) 

Hame Score - Points 

1. Offset Teat : Five pairs of stanchions offset 3 feet with 1 foot clearance on each side 
of car. Stanchions centered 25 feet apart. Score is number of stanchions cleared 
through voluntary control of the drive. (it- points each pair - maximum 20.) Any 
stanchion knocked over means failure of test and zero grade. For long trucks the spac- 
ing will need "be greater "between stanchions. 

2. Diagonal Parking : Stop one car length before entrance. Time from this point until 
starting forward after coming out of parking space. Score on following points: 

Points Summary 



(Each hitch, extra movement or touching of stanchion to reduce letter 
rating value "by one.) 



Time (Letter rating x2) in sees, 
Extra hitches (Six minus number) 



Points on Letter 


Ratings 




A = 7 




B = 6 




C+= 5 


Time 


C = k 


in 


C-= 3 


Seconds 


D = 2 




E = 1 




F = 





Final position (A, B, C+, D, E, F) Rating 
(Rating x2) 

Touching stanchions (Four minus number 
touched) 

3. General Points in Manipulation . 

Smoothness of operation (A, B, C-i-, C, D, E, F) Rating 
Handling of gears 
Looks for traffic 

TT J -I - / M " " It II II II \ 

Hand signals given ( ) 

(Rating x2) 

k. Zig-zag Forward Test : Steering forward through stanchions in zig-zag fashion. 
Five stanchions in straight line spread 25 feet from center to center. (Number 
of stanchions missed xk) 



II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


If 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


It 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 



5. Zig-zag Backward Test : Steering backward through stanchions as above in zig- 
zag fashion without touching. (Number of stanchions missed xk) 



6. Parallel Parking : Stop in position. Time for this point until passing same 
point at completion of test. (Total time ) 

Time (Letter rating) in sees. - 

Extra hitches (Six minus number) - 

Final position (A, B, C+, C } C- f B } E, F, x2) Rating 
Touching stanchions (12 minus number) 



7. Overall Time for Test : Letter rating x3. 

8. Comments of the Examiner: 



Examiner 



■n 



120 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

The blueprints for stanchions used in the practical teats may be obtained from the 
American Automobile Association at 17th and Pennsylvania Avenues, Washington, D. C. Letter 
ratings for time if established by empirical methods. When 100-200 of a class of drivers 
are to be examined, using vehicles which they are most likely to drive are available, make 
distributions and assign letter ratings as follows: 

A = Upper 5 per cent - shortest time. 

B = Next longer 10 per cent. 

C+ = Next longer 20 per cent. 

C = Middle 30 per cent - average time. 

C- = Next longer 20 per cent. 

D = Next longer 10 per cent. 

E = Longest 5 per cent - longest time. 

Standardization of the glarometer may be made the same way by giving the test to an 
unselected group of 100-200 persons. The A group would be the 5 per cent having the high- 
est indicator readings, those showing the greatest tolerance of light. 



APPENDIX 121 



9. A Form for Field Tests of Drivers . 

1. Number Man Woman Date 

2 . Name Age Wt . Ht . 

3. Years of driving passenger cars Commercial cars, trucks 

~K. Number of kinds of cars you have driven Car used in test; 

Model ____Year Make 



5. Number of accident experiences while you were driving, (accident defined as need 
for garage repairs of car or medical attention to driver, passenger, or other 
persons) Describe each. — 



legend : Scheme of Field 

x - lines of contact. 

- Missed signal. ( Ma y use an ^ ° f the 
B - Backed unnecessarily. fields shown on 

S - Failed to stop. P a S es 128 and X 55) 

D - Directions necessary. 
M - Excess movement. 

1 - Right signal. 
R - left signal. 

K - Killed engine . 

C - Corners cut. 

W - Wide turn. 

J - Jerks when starting. 



Parking t ime Sec . 

Stopping distance Ft. Speed miles per hour. 

Time of trip in min Sec Error score Aver. T. 

Errors 



To improve your driving, save your car, and for greater safety you should: 

_1. Take corners slowly. 10. look both ways at a railroad 

_2. Keep attention on your driving. intersection. 

_3. Try to be calm and at ease. 11. Practice backing. 

—k. Start and stop gradually. 12. Learn state traffic laws. 

_5. Use horn and rear view mirror. 13 . Give standard hand signals for 

_6. Observe signs more carefully. turning at all times . 

_7. Look out for stop light. lh. Keep brakes and lights adjusted 

_8. Shorter turns at corners. properly. 
9. Do not "cut" corners. 



•1 



122 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



10. Form for Checking Cara , 



Learner - ■ Grade . 



(To be filled out in manual for grade) 
Check any car available to you as you find it for the following: 
Car license No. Year and Make 



Tires (Five) Pressure at Present Size 

Serial Number HP LP RF LF 



Gas ; 

Capacity of tank Quantity in tank now. 

Accuracy of gauge Type of gauge 

Mileage car makes on a gallon of gasoline 

Scale values on oil gauge 



Distance you could travel without refill 
Suggestions on saving gas , 



Oil : 

Capacity of crank case Pressure _ 

Gauge registers when cold , .When warm 

Scale values on oil gauge to 



Amount of oil in crank case at present ^^. 

Distance car would go without refill 

Weight of oil used 



Suggestions for lengthening life of car by better lubrication 



•- 



Electrical system : Age of battery. 

Specific gravity of battery 



Voltage of battery Amount of water in battery 

What happens when specific gravity is low?. 

What happens when the voltage is low? 

Suggestions on how to save the battery 



What might be wrong with a starter when it buzzes when the starter button is pushed?. 

How can it be fixed? — 

Why will lights go out or dim -when starter is depressed?— __ 

Describe and draw sketch of two types of starters. — 

1. ■ 



Radiator : Capacity of radiator: 

How much alcohol will be necessary to keep it from freezing at -25°?. 
How much Pre stone?. 



Condition of hoses Condition of fan belt 

Evidence of leaks anywhere. 



Color of radiator contents Explain color 

Does radiator need flushing out? 



General condition of car such as lubrication, finish, mechanical condition, upholstery, 
etc. 



APPENDIX 



123 



11 Questions on pamphlet "Are You a Safe Driver ?" by D. C. Duncan and A. R. Lauer, 

Form B. 

Place Right or Wrong on line after each question. 

1. Highway accidents are mostly unavoidable. 

2. Over 5C$ of drivers are accident-prone. 

3* Experience with different cars improves driving safety. 

k. All persons are alike in psychological traits such as seeing, hearing, 

G"fcC — — ^^^^^^— — 

5 One 'who does not get along with others is likely to be very safe driver. 

6*. Being able to manipulate gears, steering, and other controls of the car 
will insure safe driving. 

7. Most drivers would be safe if they knew how to be. 

8*. Domestic troubles may cause one to become accident-prone. 

9. It is possible to measure how excitable one is. 

10 '. Glare of headlights affects all persons alike. 

11 ] One who is slow to react is more likely to get caught in an 

emergency. t ~ 

12. Fast driving increases the danger of damage in case of an accident. _ 

13. Tight shoes may cause an accident. 

lU. Every man is as good a driver as he thinks he is. • 

15* Poor distance judgment may cause trouble in passing other cars. 

16] One can usually see far enough at the side at an intersection to avoid 

collision without turning his head. 

17. Stopping for boulevard signs is always necessary even in light traffic. 

18* A sleepy driver is much more likely to have accidents. 

19! Some persons eyes do not track together. If off over 5° - 8 they may 

see double images when fatigued. — ■ ~ 

20 A wise man uses the knowledge he has of himself for self -improvement. 

2l! It is much safer to drive on some road surfaces than others when both 

are wet . 

22. Good drivers on the road increase the good will of the public and 

eventually mean better salaries for employees. 

23. Extremely slow driving creates a hazard on the roadway. 

2k. In the U. S., a man accused of drunken driving may be put in Jail. 

25! Accident-prone drivers can easily remedy their troubles. 



(See answers on page 109) 



12U LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

12. Suggested form for use in car to keep a record of mileage . 

DUAL -CONTROL TRAINING CAR RECORD SHEET 
(To be filled in at each instruction period "by instructor) 

Gasoline 

Instructor Date Hours Number Mileage Estimate Condition of Car 

Instructed Before - After (Eighths Needing Attention 

full) 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 

to 



_to_ ^ 

_to ■ ^ 

_to 



-to- 
_to_ 
_to- 
_to. 
_to_ 
_to. 
_to. 
_to. 
_to. 



APPENDIX 125 



C. Equipment list for driver training. 



1. Twenty stanchions five feet high with 2 x k "base - 30 inches each way. 

2*. Three creosoted 1| x 4'a for curb,- 8 feet, 9 feet, and Ik feet, respectively. 

3. 50-100 old junk tires for layout out on the field. 

k. One tennis marker. 

5. 100 l"bs. dehydrated lime. 

6. 5-gal. auxiliary water can (leak-proof) for car trunk. 

7. 5-gal. auxiliary gas can (leak-proof) for car trunk. 

8. 2-gal. auxiliary oil can (leak-proof) for trunk. 

9. 1 6-ampere "battery charger. 

10. 1 declerometer or set of tumbling cylinders. 

11. 1 milk "bottle. 

). Slides and films for use in driver-training. (Courtesy Don Conover) 

Keeping Your Car Fit . 

12 minutes 0E 14-88 " 19^3 \(xm. sound. 

Care of tires, "battery, radiator, etc. Designed particularly for "beginning students. 

Know Your Car . (WS-21V3) 

15 minutes 0EU86 19^3 !6mm sound. 

How the modern motor vehicle operates. Designed particularly for "beginning students. 

\ 
Power . 

10 minutes Jam Handy 19 1 +3 l6mm sound. 

Through animated illustrations this picture shows how the four-stroke cycle internal 
combustion engine works. 

Short Stops . 

8 minutes Jam Handy 19^3 !6mm sound. 

The effect of speed and road surface on stopping distance is shown and expert 

drivers explain how to use the brakes most effectively for safe and smooth stops. 

Steering. Wheels. Front, and Hear Axles . 

19 minutes ~ OElj-84 19^5 l6mm sound. 

Checking the wheels for "balance, play in the steering wheel, and general check of 

running gear. 

The Battery. Ignition and Electrical System . 

26 minutes OElj-62 19^5 ^mm sound. 

Thorough check of electrical system. Good illustration of methods. 

The Clutch and Hand Brake . 

12 minutes 0El^82 19^5 l6mm sound. 

Shows how to determine the amount of clutch pedal clearance, how to inspect and ad- 
just the hand "brake . 

The Cooling System and the Fuel System . 

22 minutes 0E k6k ~ 19^5 l6mm sound. 

Checking the cooling and the fuel system. 

The Periodic Check-up . 

12 minutes OEl+89 19^5 l6mm sound. 

The necessary steps in the periodic check-up of a car. 

Trouble Shooting Your Car . 

12 minutes " OElt-90 19^5 l6mm sound. 

What the driver should do to locate and correct minor car troubles. 



n 



126 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

Elementary Driving Instructions and Inspections . 

25 minutes OE U. S. Army (NYSWG) 19*4-6 l6mm sound. 

Elementary step-by-step instructions to a new operator of a heavy vehicle. 

Learning to Drive . 

30 minutes NYUCSE 19I4.I Sound Slidefilm 35mm 

Prepared primarily for high school students in driver training course. Part I deals 
with car, etc . Part II shows a "beginner at the wheel . 

Learning About Turning . 

6 minutes OSU 19*4-1 l6mm color silent 

The correct way to turn around. Valuable for class discussion. 

Soft Pedal . 

8-1/2 minutes Jam Handy 19^3 l6mm sound. 

Shows construction and operation of the clutch. Animated illustration included. 

Smooth Starts . 

11 minutes Jam Handy 19*4-3 l6mm sound. 
How inertia is overcome in starting automobile by use of clutch. 

The Operator and His Job . 

12 minutes " G&kSl 19*4-5 l6mm sound. 
Safety and comfort of passengers, maintenance, people on streets. 

Tomorrow's Drivers . 

10 minutes NYU 19*4-1 l6mm sound. 

Presents the experiences of novice drivers enrolled in a high school driver educa- 
tion and training course. 

Your Driving Habits . (NS-2130) 

15 minutes OEh&'J 19*15 l6mm sound 

Shows the elements of good driving. 

Safe Driving and Safe Seeing . 

25 minutes WWU Recent 35™* sound, slidefilm 

Presentation of the advantages of good highway lighting. Causes and prevention of 
night accidents are included. 

Safe Roads . 

10 minutes MJ (GM3) 19*42 l6mm sound. 

Care, caution, and attention to signals while driving mean accident-free enjoyment 

for motorists everywhere. 



w 



The Road of Tomorrow . %^ 

20 minutes Jam Handy 19^3 l6mm sound. 

An interesting presentation of safety in construction of the superhighway in Pennsyl- 
vania. Demonstrates divided highways, clover-leaf intersections, etc. Examples of 
how engineering has made highways safe . tf^ 

Drunk Drivers . (NS-2159) ^* 

22 minutes TFC 19*4-0 l6mm sound. * 

If you drink don't drive --If you drive don't drink \ The story of what happens to the ^a 
driver who takes a few drinks . 

For Safety's Sake . 

30 minutes N.J. Hy. Dept. Recent l6mm sound. 

Scientific design of highways is helping to solve the problem of motorists. fT""* 

Teach Them to Drive . NS-I93O fsm 

20 minutes Am. Legion (NSC) 19*4-5 l6mm sound. 

Shows driver training methods now in use in high schools, and the daily dividend in ^ m 

safety that such training can achieve . 



APPENDIX ]£I 



The Chance to Lose . (jS-8^3) 

— — : — - (NS) 1937 lomm sound. 

RecSveY^ward as best safety film for 1937- Illustrates the chances taken by many 
drivers as compared with the chances taken in various forms of gambling. 

Youth Takes to the Highway . . . 

15 minutes DeiTsC Recent l6mm silent (Color) 

Training high school pupils to drive. Demonstrates safe driving techniques. 

Ho Use Skidding . 

20 minutes NSC 19^1 35mm sound slidefilm 

A fast-moving film explaining the major causes of winter traffic accidents. 

Tuma"b out Man . 

8 minutes Jam Handy 19^3 l^mm sound. _ 

Shows why bad manners in driving are not only just as out -of -place as in society, 

"but are much more dangerous . 

1. Set of slides on Highway Safety "by Keystone View Company. 

2. 16 -mm films to "be used as available in teaching driving. 

(The numbers refer to Iowa State College film library. NSC = National 
Safety Council, MU = University of Missouri, NWU = Northwestern Univer- 
sity, etc.) 



128 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



E. Driving Fields and Training Devices. 

1. Driver Training Field at Iowa State College 



o 



I. SIO» 

2 Slow 

3. Curve 

4. Curve 

6. Winding road 
6 Slow 

7. Slow 

8. Winding road 

9. Narrow bridge 
10 Slow 



I I, Narrow bridge 

12. Slow 

13. Cu.ve 
14 Slow 

15. Curve 

16. Curve 

17. Slow 

18. Slow 

19. Oneway troldc 



o 



1-7 Arterial etop highway 






I Alterno 

2. School 

3. School 

4. Cattle 

5. Cattle ( 

6. Stor, county 

7. Minimum speed 25miles 

8. Alternate 

9. Junction 

10. Des Molnef+32mt, Nevoda-»-|Omi, Marshaltown -*■' 

II Webster CltyT43 mi, Nevoda->IOml, Cedar Rapids 
12. End 25 mile dlltrlct 

13 Parking 

14 Parking 
15. Do not enter 
16 Minimum spoea 25milos 
17. End 25 mile d iwtrict 
ia Skunk river 
19. Skunk river 
20.Porktnn 



o 



I - 2 Railroad crossing 




Scale = Inch = 48 

Alldistances 1rom center tocenter 
Road width 24' unless marked 



Driving Field 



APPENDIX 



129 



2. Driver Training Field, Iowa State Teachers' College, Cedar galls, Iowa . 




Driving Field - I.S.T. C 



130 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



3. Driver Training Field, Lane Technical High School, Chicago, Illinois , 







k. Stoner Traffic Board Layout. 




e* 



A number of problems can be set up for group solution with this board. Safe 
driving involves the ability to visualize situations in advance. 

Parking instruction behind the wheel can be greatly speeded up by using some 
form of traffic board, good blackboard illustrations, or by motion pictures. It 
goes without saying that a skilled demonstration by the instructor should be given 
at the first presentation of the problems set for practice in the car. 

Such a board may also be profitably used for testing the student on traffic 
laws prior to his application for a driver's examination. 



r 



APPENDIX 



131 



.5. Stoner Traffic Teat Record 

(To "be used with traffic "board. See page 130) 

How Well Do You Know Traffic Ordinances and Practices? 
A Traffic Problem Test 

C. M. Stoner and A. R. Lauer 



Name. 



.Age 



Years of Driving 



Car driven 



Miles traveled Annually. 



.Total Score on Test 
Traffic Usage Score 



Motor Vehicle Code Score. 

On the Prohlem Board you will find typical markers, situations vlolat ^> ^odprac- 
tices and dangerous practices commonly noted on the streets and highways Your attention 
is calSd To ^he numbered hlack disks. Each disk is within two or three inches of some 
situation you are to react to. The numher on the disk corresponds to the number on the 

S tee -1 2 3 K 5, 6, etc. First you are to check the proper columns marked 
ggtlor Dan^erous^ractlce : ¥iHiS _S 1 tuation, Nothing Wrong , etc .Under the column 
What is Wr o ng? State in I^rd or two the exact nature of the difficulty. Use check 
marka ( ) for columns A, B, C, and D. In E note what is wrong. 

Rememher to check only one column after each item or disk numher. Some of the situa- 
tions are quite correct. Mark these as Nothing Wrong . In a few instances there are two 
in orrtct practices or violations on the same vehicle. Note the p^o algae, Sec- 
tion vehicles are headed, types of signs, etc. (Set up prohlems as desired) 
Score = h X number right. 



Disk 
No. 

( 1) 
( 2) 
( 3) 

( h) 
( 5) 
( 6) 
( 7) 
( 8) 
( 9) 
(10) 
(11) 
(12) 
(13) 

Cut) 

(15) 

(16) 
(17) 
(18) 
(19) 
(20) 
(21) 
(22) 
(23) 
(210 
(25) 



A 
Viola- 
tion of 
State Law 



B 
Dangerous 
Practice 
Only 



Wrong Situa- 
tion hut no 
Violation 



D 

Nothing 

Wrong 



E 

What is 
Wrong? 



152 



6. Denver Modified Field 
(For small area} 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



r Q 

Cl, OQ W 




APPENDIX 



133 




Driving Fields 
Iowa State College 

Various types of driving fields have been used. Three fields for testing drivers 
developed at Iowa State College as a National Research Council Project were perhaps the 
first of this type to be carefully described and arrangements standardized. An early 
form of similar design was used by the Army during the first World War. 

Later adaptations by Lane Technical High School, Iowa State College and more re- 
cently by Iowa State Teachers College. The latter is the most pretentious development 
so far as size is concerned. It is our belief that one can learn quite as well on a 
small field as irore actual skill is developed in close-order maneuvers. The large driv- 
ing range is useful in giving near-roadway driving practice. 



13^ 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



r- 




Dr ivometer 

This instrument is used for both testing and training. The controls are the same 
as found on a regular car, but the operation is slightly different. 

An objective score is obtained in terms of, (1) time to complete a certain trip 
(six revolutions of the traveling roadway), (2) percentage of time the driver stays 
on the roadway, and (3) errors of observation, including proper reaction to signs, 
stop lights, and other stimuli presented mechanically in a standard fashion. 

Those who have trouble getting used to steering and otherwise attending to the 
several things necessary to driving safely, can profit a great deal by special practice 
on this or similar apparatus. (Compare with devices used at early stage of training at 
Lane Technical High School in Chicago.) 






r- 



APPENDIX 1 35 



F. Simple Aids for Use in Testing and Teaching Drivers.* 

The fundamental theory of using test devices** for examining drivers is based upon the 
assumption that the testing device will accomplish one or more of the following results: 
(a) It will refine the methods used in selection of well -qualified drivers and thus improve 
the selected group, ("b) It will apprise the individual driver of certain defects in special 
abilities in the area measured, (c) It will make him conscious of certain common errors 
and defects in driving or flying performance, and (d) it will motivate him to become a more 
efficient and a safer operator. 

Various tests have been devised and have been used for this purpose. Some of them 
have not been adequately validated and standardized. Interpretation of results are at 
times not properly understood by those who use the devices. To be worthwhile a test must 
be (a) reliable and give approximately the same results each time it is given - assuming 
no change in directions given, and (b) it must measure something which has to do with the 
function it is designed to evaluate. This latter characteristic is called validity . Also, 
it must be (c) properly interpreted by those who make use of the results. 

All tests of human capacities and abilities must measure one or more of the following 
psychophysical components or types of behavior: 

A. Sensory components or capacities and abilities such as vision, hearing, balance, 
muscle sense, touch, etc. In all, psychology recognizes ten or eleven senses. 

B. Central components or processes including intelligence, both specific and general, 
special aptitudes, attitudes and knowledge. 

C. Motor components, including speed of action, consistency in action, emotional 
stability, control of action, strength and endurance. 

It is not essential to have elaborate and complex apparatus to make certain specific 
measurements; in fact, it is often desirable to use rather simple devices. The following 
instructions and the attached diagrams will illustrate a few of the simple devices for mak- 
ing auxiliary measures of importance in driving and flying. All the tests described here 
are reliable and valid for the purpose they were intended when properly given. 

Color Vision Interpretation : In general, the Navy and Air Corps have been quite severe 
in exacting in selection of men with respect to color blindness. 

Figure 1 is merely a copy of numbers on the plates used in the Ishihara test - 6th 
Edition. A much more reasonable interpretation of color blindness can be made by reference 
to this chart. 

A very careful analysis of color-blind persons by means of a spectrophotometer, in 
which difference of intensity between the two bands was controlled, showed that about one 
out of thirty color-blind persons would confuse colored lights as used for signal purposes. 
The results showed that only those who missed the numbers in triangles shown on this inter- 
pretation chart would confuse colored lights. By using this chart for interpreting results 
from the Ishihara test a much finer and more accurate selection of men can be made. The 
chart is used by reference to the legend. (See Figure 1. ) 

Nuckolls*** Iowa Field of Movement Test : 

Studies of several thousand drivers have shown a wider field for perception of move- 
ment by experienced football players and taxi drivers. It seems reasonable that formation 
flying would put considerable premium upon the ability to spot and place and note accurate- 
ly moving objects in the periphery of vision. A field normal for both eyes will vary from 



*Devices developed in the Engineering Experiment Station at Iowa State College in co- 
operation with the American Optometric Association. 
•'-For detailed discussion see "Methods of Measuring the Ability to Drive an Automobile." 
Bulletin #115, Engineering Ext. Service, Iowa State College. 
**Courtesy New York Yearbook of Optometry. 
***A further improvement is a piece of upright material over center to occlude the eye not 
being tested. 



136 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



COLOR VISION STANDARDS 

(Based on 6th Edition Ishihara Chart) 



8 




6 




5 




74 





2\ /6\ 5 




(26) (42) 

"Numbers not read by persons with normal color 
vision 

Legend : 
I I = When missed indicate mild and insignificant color blindness. 

= Those which only one number is commonly missed indicating 
partiol color blindness of o type- 

= Those which indicate a tendency to confuse colored lights. 
Usually others are missed along with these four test cards. 

Copyrignt by American Oplometnc Assoaolion 

/Courtesy lowo Slals CalleOeN 
V Driving Laboratory I 



o 

A 




£,.»..,*>- 




%^ 



J 



Color Vision Standards 



^ 



APPENDIX 137 



180-190 degrees while some cases are found with a field up to 210 degrees. In rare in- 
stances the field may "be constricted to a very narrow range - perhaps 10 to 15 degrees. 
In such pathological cases vision may "be nearly normal in fovea or central area of retina. 
By measuring this field and calling the applicant's attention to its importance you place 
another very powerful defense weapon in his hand - heightened attention. It is our opin- 
ion that flyers should have at least a field of 180 degrees to start training. There is 
every reason to "believe the field can "be materially extended by systematic practice and 
stimulation. (See Figure 2.) 

DIRECTIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND USE 

Construct according to scale from light press-hoard not over 3/16" in thickness. The 
holes shown at the top are for thumb insertion and giving the test. It is so shaped as to 
fit along the face on the side to he measured. For left side measurements the examiner 
inserts his left thumb in the hole and raises the perimeter to a level plane and just "be- 
low the eye. It must "be carefully aligned so the protruding thumb will "be directly in 
front of the eye. Now take a full length light blue or yellow pencil in the right hand 
and move along the edge of perimeter in a perpendicular position. About 3 inches of' pen- 
cil should show above the perimeter. You are to give each examinee the following exact 
instructions: "Look directly at my thumb and tell me when you see movement on the left." 
Start from the back and move cautiously while moving pencil slightly until the examinee 
reports movement. Press pencil lightly against perimeter, lower and take reading to near- 
est degree. Make three such measurements for each side, carefully noting position or 
direction of line of vision. Caution the subject if he peeks and start over for that par- 
ticular trial. There is a strong tendency for the eye to turn in the direction of the 
pencil. Make three such measurements and record each time. Take the mean of the three ob- 
servations as the field of vision for one side. With a little practice a very reliable 
measurement can be obtained. 

Eye Dominance - Reed-Van Osdal Test : 

In every set of data we have collected, persons with right ocular dominance seem to 
be less. disposed to accidents than those who are left-eye dominant. The reason can only 
be conjectured but is possible that in automobile driving more obstructions, vehicles, and 
pedestrians are experienced at close range on the right than on the left. That persons 
tend to use one eye only and do not "attend" with the other eye is common knowledge. 
Therefore, the effect seems to be that of lowered attention on the non-dominant side re- 
sulting in momentary or sustained psycho -blindness . (See Figure 3.) 



DIRECTIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND USE 

Cut the board out of l/k to 5/l6 inch plywood or press -board. Cut hole in center and 
hand holes at side according to scale. (See small print under reading glass.) 

To administer test have examinee hold up board and fixate some object a distance of 
from 5 to 10 feet. Give him these instructions, "Hold up this test board at arm's length 
and, with both eyes open, move it about until you can see the number 2 on my office door, 
(the door knob, or any other object). Tell me when you can see it by saying, "Now." At 
such time the examiner q_uickly places a small 3 x k card over one of the examinee's eyes 
and says, "Now do you see it?" If the subject says, "Yes", he is seeing it with the op- 
posite eye. If he says, "No," you are covering the dominant eye. At least seven observa- 
tions should be made per person, and the examiner should change sides for each observa- 
tion to avoid suggesting the use of one eye or other. The results are recorded as R R L 
R L R 1, etc., accordingly as the Trials are made and reported. Do not inform the examinee 
of your recordings or speak "right" or "left" aloud until he has completed the test. Those 
with marked ocular dominance should be told of the significance of the condition. (See 
Figure 4.) 



138 



LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 



Tolerance of Light. Modification of Glarometer . 

Several methods of measuring light tolerance have "been used. 1 The present adaptation 
of the Glarometer is recommended since many practitioners already have these devices and 
it has proved both reliable and valid for the purpose. The test can also "be very quickly 
made. The secondary features of this adaptation may "be varied but we recommend a literal 
duplication of the essential features which are; (l) Eye placed at distance of 20 inches 
from the ground glass and test letters, (2) Hood so made as to exclude all extraneous 
light, (3) Small illumination bulb placed behind shield between letters and eye to illumi- 
nate ground glass to about 2 foot- candles when flood bulb is off. 

The box may be constructed of l/2" pine sides with hard press board top and bottom. 
The eye piece was made to fit the forehead and exclude light coming from above and sides 
and to some extent from the bottom. 

Four trials are usually given and averaged for the score. The crank should be turned 
one revolution per second as the examiner counts, 1-1000, 2-1000, 3-1000, etc. At the 
moment the subject reports OUT , snap off the flood bulb. Instruments may vary with the 
bulb used, age of bulb, and condition of the rheostat. It is necessary, therefore, to work 
out some calibration 2 system before standardizing your instrument. For method of standard- 
ization, see La uer. 3 

The subject is allowed to adapt to indoor illumination for at least 5 to 10 minutes. 
He is placed before the instrument and given the following instructions: "This device is 
used to measure your tolerance of light. When you cannot read the word OUT say "Out". 
"Beady." Examiner then snaps on the flood light with indicator at zero and cranks rheostat 
at stated speed. Observe closely in order to stop instantaneously when subject reports. 
If incorrect keep crank moving until proper response is obtained. At such moment switch 
off flood light immediately. Record each trial as given. Examiner must be careful not to 
coast past the response point before reading is made. For presbyopic persons or those with 
very poor vision use large letters and deduct 10 per cent from readings. 

The minimum and simplest recommended equipment for simple checks of drivers in prac- 
tical situations consists of the following: 



A. Sensory Components 



1. Simple acuity of vision. Snallen chart at 20 feet. 

2. Astigmatism. Snallen chart radiating lines or fan-dial. 

3. Phorias - stereoscopic slide. 
h. Glare tolerance. See Figure h. 

5. Field of vision. See Figure 2. 

6. Ocular dominance. See Figure 3. 

7. Color vision - Ishihara test as interpreted by Figure 1, 



B. Central Components 



1. Alertness to mechanical situation. Any good test. 

2. Knowledge of good driving practices. 

3. Knowledge of road laws. 

k. Test of attitudes toward people and regulations. 



C. Motor Components 



1. Activity test . 

2. Strength test. Also an index of endurance, 

3. A coordination test. 
k. A driving skill test. 



Hand dynameter. 



^ 
*!*■ 



uer, A. R., An Experimental Study of Glare Susceptibility. 

metry, 1936, 8, No. 6, 200-207. 

uer, A. R., An Experimental Study of Glare Perceptibility. 



American Journal of Opto- 
American Journal of Opto- 



metry, 1936, 8, No. 6, 200-207. 
Lauer, A. R., Methods of Measuring the Ability to Drive an Automobile Bulletin #115, 
Engineering Extension Service, Iowa State College. 



APPENDIX 



139 



Iowa State Multi- 
Attitude Test 



IOWA STATU MULTI-ATTTTUDB SCALE 

Form A 
Edited by A. R. Lauer, Ph. D. 

Sex Bdneatio* (yr*.)- 

Utter 



Num A * e 

Score X Letter Y Letter Z 



Directions 



This Mitatof what too think of certain things. Bead over the following word* and live your first reactions to each. If the word 
■art It %7if St Z "mewhat pleasant mark itT if it is indifferent mark it 2. if it is displeasing mark it 1. and if most displeasin 



sning is very pleasinc to 70a 



ng mark it 0. Thus : 

4 = very pleasing:, very pleasant or very agreeable. 

3 = pleasing, somewhat pleasant or agreeable. 

2 = indifferent, neutral or makes no particular impression. 

1 = displeasing, unpleasant or disagreeable. 

= most displeasing, very unpleasant or very disagreeable. 

The following words would probably be marked by most persons as follows : 

castor oil = spring sunshine = 3 

Naturally most words will be marked differently by different persons. The following words will be given for your practice in using the numbers 0. 1. 2, 3, and 4 as 

given above. Place the proper number after each word to indicate your feeling concerning it. ....__. 

carriage bolt R coxy home Q ^ ^'"^ ° 

You will most likely have the words marked in the squares as follows: carriage bolt 2, as.it would not.be likely to make any significant ™f™™ ™ w %£™£ 

Cozr home has a very pleasant connotations and might be marked 4, while being criticized is annoying and will be marked by most people as 0. ""T'ever. yon 

ma?be "fferlnt and^our reactions are wanted on th* sheet. You know how to use the list above, by placing the Proper number m the square to ind.c^ate how tte 

w?rd appals to you! now go through the following lists and place a number in each square to indicate the feeling ? .« h.™ toward thuwori D. not omit any. 

Refer to the list above frequently so you do not forget the system. They are repeated here and at the bottom for convenience. WUKK. KAr-lDLv. 



tree trunk = 2 



4 = 


Tery 


pleasing 8 = plea 




/ 


1. labor union 




3 


2. literature study 




; 


3. police whistle 




a. 


4. U. S. detective 




¥ 


5. music study 







6. alcohol 




A 


7. trust companies 




X 


8. Russian 




JL 


9. safety zone 




/ 


10. military training 







11. bootlegger 




x 


12. government railway control 




¥ 


13. universities 




X 


14. fire ping 




x 


15. Italian 




3 


16. Masonic Lodge 




3 


17. birth control 




f 


18. scientific training 




3 


19. Anti-saloon League 




3 


20. driving behind lady driver 




X 


21. five-day working week 




A 


22. Greek 




i- 


23. Women's Temperance Union 




3 


24. U. S. representative 




X 


25. motor cop 




4 


26. sacred music 




A. 


27. Secretary of Interior 




x 


28. priest 




A 


29. social fraternity 




X 


30. U. S. senator 




X 


31. Baptist 




/ 


82. communism 




z 


33. basket ball 



1 



4 = vary pleasing 



I as pi— « jam 



2 = indifferent 

34. racing car 

35. prize fight 

36. one-way street 

37. easy money 

38. boring match 

39. mountain driving 

40. liquor parties 

41. side roads 

42. football 

43. church school 

44. politics 

45. light wines 

46. "political pull" 

47. old man 

48. Presbyterian 

49. Indian 

50. friendship 

51. card game 

52. 25-mile speed limit 

53. foreman 

54. old woman 

55. bar tender 

56. baseball 

57. make trips on schedule 

58. patrolman 

59. to be with others 

60. politician 

61. U. S. food control 

62. beer 

63. government farm board 

64. road house 

65. speedway 

66. school zone 

67. government control of 

aviation 

2 = indifferent 

END OF TEST 



1 = displeasing 



= most displeasing 



X 


68. Chinaman 





69. saloon 


X 


70. city detective 


4- 


71. hymn 


2 


72. hamburger joint 


1 


73. crossing-gates at R. R. 


3 


74. 8-room house 


x 


75. railway detective 





76. speak-easy 


¥ 


77. college professor 


3 


78. hospital zone 


X 


79. Knights of Columbus 


3 


80. Sunday School teacher 


¥ 


81. fireplace in home 





82. brandy 


3 


83. 6-hour day 


X 


84. Odd Fellows Lodge 


1 


85. riding 70 miles an hour 


3 


86. boulevard stop sign 


/ 


87. loud car horn 


X 


88. county auditor 


I 


89. organized labor 


3 


90. velvet rugs 


3 


91. love letters 


¥ 


92. prohibition 


X 


93. boss 


3 


94. nun 


/ 


95. socialism 


3 


96. traffic regulations 


3 


97. voting 


3 


98. driving slow in traffic 





99. bolshevism 


X 


100. Jewish synagogue 



1 = displeasing 



= most displeasing 



3A0 LEARNING TO DRIVE SAFELY 

H. References 

There are a limited number of "books on driving and driver training. The following 
major titles should be in every school library offering driving courses. Below are a num- 
ber of references found in periodicals which may be obtained in reprint form or in pamph- 
lets distributed by agencies cooperating to reduce accidents. 

MAJOR REFERENCES 

Accident Eacts . National Safety Council, 20 N. Wacker Drive, Chicago, 111. An annual sum- 
mary of accident statistics in all fields. 

Automobile Users Guide. Customer Research Staff, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, 
Michigan. A small booklet containing very valuable information for every driver. 

De Silva, Harry R . Why We Have Accidents. John Wiley and Sons, 19^2, pp. 394-hXVII. 

Contains resume of various studies on driving with suggestions for accident reduction 
on the highway. 

Dyke , A. L ., Automobile and Gasoline Engine Encyclopedia. The Goodheart -Wilcox Co. Inc., 
Chicago, 111., 19^3. PP. 1^83. A compendium of information relating to the automobile 
as a machine. 

Heitner, Shidle and Bissell , Elements of Automobile Mechanics. D. Van Nostrand Co. Inc., 
New York, N. Y., 19^3. PP. 395. Excellent for those learning to drive. 

Kramer , Milton D. , Behind the Wheel . Center for Safety Education, New York, l^kk. pp. 38. 
Simplified step by step procedures for use of parents and learners. 

Man and the Motor Car . National Conservation Bureau, New York, N. Y. 19^1, 287+XI. -A 
textbook designed primarily for driver education or classroom instruction. 

Plans for Building Drivers' Tests . American Automobile Association, Pennsylvania Ave. at 
17th St., Washington, D. C. 19^7, PP. 27. Complete sets of blueprints and plans for 
making testing equipment for driving. It is laid out such that the school shop may 
do most of the construction. 

Sportsmanlike Driving . American Automobile Association, Washington, D. C., 19^-8, pp. ^55 
+-XVT. A textbook on driving and driver training which appeals to the high school 
reader . 

Weiss, A. P . and Lauer, A. R . , Psychological Principles in Automobile Driving. The Ohio 
State University Studies, Graduate School Series, Contributions in Psychology, No. 11, 
Columbus, Ohio. 1931., PP. l6"5 +VII. Basic research on the problems of driving. Sug- 
gestions for measuring drivers characteristics. 

Winter Accident Prevention . National Safety Council, Committee on Winter Hazards, Chicago, 
111., 19V7, pp. 23. 

MINOR REFERENCES 

The following smaller articles, bulletins and pamphlets are of special value in cer- 
tain phases of driving instruction. Many of them may be out of print but others may be 
reproduced from standard library periodicals. 

Age and Highway Accidents . De Silva, Harry R., Yale University Institute of Human Rela- 
tions, New Haven, Connecticut, 1939., PP. 10. 

Alcohol in Relation to Traffic Accidents . The Journal of the American Medical Association. 
Reprints from Northwestern Traffic Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111., 
1938, PP. 9. 

Fact and Fancy Regarding Driver-Testing Procedures . Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 21, 
pp. 173-188. 

Laws Governing Motor Vehicle Operation . Write your state motor vehicle department or com- 
mission and ask for copies distributed to prospective licensees. 



APPENDIX lkl 



Learning to Drive . Lauer, A. R. Safety Education, Vol. 26, Wo. 2, Sec. I, pp. 10-12. 
Let's Teach Driving . National Commission on Safety Education of the National Education 
Association, 1201 Sixteenth St., N. W. Washington 6, D. C., 19V7, pp. 119 +XV. 

Professional Driving . Ethyl Corporation, New York, N. Y. 19^3, PP. ^3. 
Research in Driver Training . Lauer, A. R. School and Society. Vol. 53, No. 1378, 
pp. 677-679. 



1 



INDEX 



ability, i, 36, 59, 75, 115 
accelerator, 5, 14, 23, 26, 31, 42, 47, 

48, 56, 75 
accidents, avoiding, 6, 22 

deaths, 4, 83 

fatal, ii, 83 

prevention, i, 77 

reporting, 2 

reports, 2 

toll, ii 
acknowledgements, 1 
acuity, visual, 2, 7 
administrator, 8, 9 
advanced work, 3 
aids, 1 
air, conditioner, 105 

pressure, 17, 34 
alcohol, 12 
Allgaier, Earl, 1 
American Automobile Association, ii, 1, 

120 
ammeter, 2, 3, 25 
amperes, 26 
antifreeze, 9, 69 
appendix, 7, 108 

applicant, for drivers license, 9 
aptitudes, ii, 75 
assignments, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20 
assignment sheet, 9, 10, 21 
attendance, 10 
attention, ll6 
attitude test, 109, 139 
attitudes, ii, 2, 4, 36, 109, 116, I38, 

139 
automotive industry, 12 

backing, 14, 17, 18, 47, 48, 62 
battery, 25, 26, 31, 63 
bearings, 35 

block, for holding car, 25 
brakes, air, 103 

electric, 25, 50 

foot, 5, 12, 16, 17, 23, 32, 34, 48, 
50, 56, 86 

hand, 23, 31, 50, 59, 63, 75, 95, 103 

hydraulic, 25, 34, 50, 56, 95, 103 

mechanical, 25, 50, 56, 103 

vacuum, 103 
bridge, 67, 91 
bumper, l6, 47 
bumps, caution about, 13 
bus, school, 55, 57 

trolley, 55, 57, 91 

camber, 34, 95 
car, check, 9, 122 

control of, 4, 8, 12, 23, 31, 54, 67, 
68, 85, 101 



car (continued) 

cutaway, 10, 23, 25 

dual, 5, 6, 12, 13 

"dummy," 5 

exercise, 16, 17 
carburetor, 25, 43 
Center for Safety Education, 1 
certificate, 8, 9, H 
chains, 96 
chances, i 
chassis, 25 
choke, 23, 106 
circle, 19 
city, 16 

Clason Acuity Meter, 37 
clinical, 9, 10, 11, 108, 113 
clover- leaf, 19, 79, 85, 93 
clutch, 5, 12, 17, 18, 23, 25, 28, 31, 32, 
33, 35, 41, \2, 67, 75, 101 
coast, 17 
code, motor, 9 
coil, 25 

color vision, 135, 13 6 
Commission for Safety Education, 1 
compensate, 4, 75, 97 
compression, 25 
Conover, Donald W. , 125 
cooling system, 25, 32 
Contents, Table of, v 

corners, l6, 18, 4l, 55, 62, 68, 69, 84 
Corp, Womens Army, ii 
courtesy, 16 
crankcase, 34, 56, 69 
crankshaft, 25 
credit, 8, 10, 94 
crosswalk, 18, 83, 87 
crew, i 

curbs, 13, 34, 59, 62 
curves, 65 
cylinder, six cylinder car, 34 

tumbling cylinders, 33 

damage, 12, 13, 16, 22, 47, 69, 77 

danger, 15, 47, 48, 95 

dangerous age, i 

dash, 23 

decelerator, 33 

defroster, 23, 26 

demonstration, 14, 21, 23, 6l, 68, 93 

Denger, Eoy, 53, 132 

depth perception, 115 

devices, 1, 5, 101, 102, 103, 106, 111, 135 

differential gears, 25 

disabilities, ii 

distance, stopping, 75, 79 

judgement, 6l, 78, 114, 115 
distributor, 25, 95 
doors, 12 



¥* 



? 



f 



■142- 



r 



i 



INDEX 



Ikj 



drive, pinion, 25 

shaft, 25 
Drivometer, 112, 13 h 
driver, education, ii, iii 

safe, 3, 16, 59 

training, 2, 8, 109, HI, 125 
driving, field, 2, 5, 13, 27, W+, 55, 121 

night, 9^ 

road, 2, 5, 8, 77 

safely, 14-, 22, 23, 6l, 77, 91, 121 

sportsmanlike, 5 

student of, iii, 5, 22, 77, 78 
dual controls, 5, 6, 12, 13, lU 
Duncan, D. C, 123 
duties, 8, 9, 10 
dynaflow, 59, 106 

economy, 2, 5, 22, 96 
electrical system, 2 
electricity, 25, 2.6 
elements, central, 30 

response, 35, 37 

sensory, 35 
emergency, Ik, 110 
engine, 25 

enrollment, 9, 10, 108, 111 
ethylene glycol, 12 
examination, forms, 9, 10 

license, 3. 7, 9, H, 19, 20 

visual, 11 it- 
expense, 6, 22 
exercises, 16, 17, 18 
eyes, l6,, 17, %, 70, 78, 79, 9\ 137 

fan, 25 
fan "belt, 1+3 
fender, 12, 15, l6, 1+7 
fees, 8, 9, 10, H, HI 

field, driving, 2, 5, 13, 27, M+, HO, 118, 
128, 129, 132 

of vision, 32, 79, 81, 11*+, 15 6 
films, 8, 23, 77, 125, 126, 127 
fluid, 12 

fluid-drive, 59, 95, 101 
fly wheel, 25 
fog, 70, 95 
forms, 9, 12, 113 
free-wheeling, 102 

garage, 12, 28, 67 

Gaskill, Dr. H. V., 1 

gasoline, 2, 9, 12, 33, 122 

gauge, 12, 23, 25, 27, 31 

gears, 16, 23, 25, 26, 31, 33, k2, 1+8, 

70, 101 
generator, 25, 26, 63 
glare, lll+ 

glarometer, 120, 136, 138 
grease, 3k, 35, 56 
grill, 16 
group, 8, 9, 1A, 19, HO 



habits, ii, 18, 6l, 67 

Hall, W. Earl, i 

Hamilton, Alexander, 1 

hazard, 16, 17 76, 77, 93 

hazardous mission, i 

headlights, 28 

heating, 12 

heater, 23 

highways, i, 22, 55, 79 

Highway Eesearch Board, 1 

hill, 17, 19, V7, 61, 62, 63, 75, 77, 78 

Hill, Paul F. , 1 

hood, 25 

horn, 12, 16, 23, 56, 86 

hose, 3^ 

human conservation, 1 

hydrant, 91+ 

hydromatic, 59, 101 

ice, 91 

ignition, Ik, 23, 25, 31, 63 

industry, automotive, 12 

injuries, 83 

inspection, 23 

instruction, ii, 5, 6, 8, 12, 23 

insurance, 2, 70, 71, 77 , 

intersection, 16, 1+1, 1+9, 55, 69, 83, 86, 

93 
intelligence, 35 
introduction, 2 
Iowa State, Board of Education, i 

College, ii, 1, 128, 133 

Safety Council, i, 1 

Teachers College, 1, 129, 133 

jack, 96 

judgment, 6l, 78, 83, 115, H6 

keys, 12, 13, Ik, 109 

laboratory, 5, 6, 8, 21, 35, 65, 112 
Lane Technical High School, 1, 2k, 130 
lanes, 16, 18, kl, k2 , kk , 1+9 , 75, 83, 85 
87, 93, 99 
Larson, Flavia, 1 
Lauer, Dr. A. B., 123, 138, 139 
Lauer, Miller-Lauer Form, 108, 117 
Lauer, Bogers-Lauer Scale, 10, 78, 108, 116, 
laws, motor vehicle, 9, 36, 86 

road, 2, k, 8, 10, Ik, 22, 36, 86 

State, 9, 36, 86, 9I+ 
learner, 2, 3, k, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, Ik, 22, 

110 
license, 3, H, ±k, 19, 9I+ 
license plate, 70 
lights, 12, 16, 23, 2k, 25, 26, 1+3, 63, 70, 

78, 79, 104 
limitations, k 
line, curved, 18 

straight, 18, 53 
locks, 106 
lubrication, 2, 28, 35, 53, 56 



^ 



144 



manifold, 43 

manipulation, 4, 12, 14, 21, 42, 53, 54, 

68, 85, 93, H7, 119 
markers, 16 

Mason City Globe Gazette, i 
manual, use of, ii, iii, 3, 7, 9, 10, 20 

state, 8, 10, 22 
mechanical, 9 
mechanism, 23, 24 

methods, of teaching driving, 4, 5 
midterm, 10 
mileage, 12, 124 
Miller-Lauer Form, 108, 117 
mirror, 12, 23, 31, 47 
mobilization, ii 
motor, braking, 17 

code, 9 

dependability, i 

racing, 12, 31 

running, l6, 63 

vehicle, 22, 112 
Motor Vehicle Department of Iowa, 1 

of Connecticut, 1 
Moyer, Prof. E. A., 1 

National Conservation Bureau, 1 

National Education Association, 1 

National Eesearch Council, 1 

newspapers, 2, 83 

Neyhart, Prof. Amos E., 1 

Noffsinger, Dr. F. E. , 1 

nose -down, 18, 87 

notebook, 11, 20 

notes, 10 

Nuckolls Chart, 135 

objectives, 4 
obligations, 9, 10 
observation, 5, 19, ll6 
O'Connor Block Test, 112 
ocular dominance, 114, 136 
oil, 9, 23, 25, 34, 56, 112 
ordinances, 2, 22 
overdrive, 59, 62, 95, 101 
oxygen, i 

Palmer, Charles Edward, 1 

parachutes, 1 

parking, 17, 19, 43, 59, 60, 6l, 62, 63, 

68, 70, 87, 118, 119 
passengers, 12 
passing, 16, 69, 73 
pavement, l6, 56, 80, 87, 95 
pedal, 18, 23 

pedestrian, 16, 79, 83, 84 
Pennsylvania State College, 1 
permit, 8, 10, 26, 34, 39, 42, 77, 8*4- 
perimeter, 32 

physical qualifications, 112 
pictures, 5 
pinion, 25 

policeman's turn, 51 
power, 4 



INDEX 



power-point, 18, 29, 33, 34, 4l, 42 

practice, 2, 13 

precaution, i, 6, 12 

pressure, 23, 32 

progress, ii 

protection, 12 

psychological, 35 

psychophysical, 35, 75 

Public Instruction, Department of, 1 

Public Eoads Administration, 1 

public safety, i, 1 

pump, fuel, 25 

water, 25 
puncture, 44 

quizzes and examinations, 10, 11, 113 

radiator, 2, 12, 25, 32, 34, 35, 39, 43, 

73, 112 
radio, 25 

railroad, 1+7, 65, 86, 94 
ratings, 10, 19, 93 
reaction time, 37, 75 
records, 9, 10, 108, 111, 113, 124 
Beed-Van Osdal Test, 137 
references ii, 20, 25, 33, 42, 1+9, 55, 62, 

69, 78, 140 
register, 10 
regulations, 15, 109 
repairs, 9, 12 
report, 10, 11, 12, 29, 39, 45, 51, 57, 65, 

73, 81, 89, 99 
responsibility, ii, 8 
right of way, 16 
ring gear, 25 
risk, 6, 36 

road, 4, 5, 8, 10, 13, 16, 67, 77, 80 
Eogers-Lauer Scale, 10, 78, 108, ll6 
route, 16 
running board, 15 

safety, education, 1 

principles, 14 
Sargent, Hubert, 1 
schedule, 9, 10 
school bus, 55, 57 
scrap-book, 10, 11, 25, 94 
Seal-beam, 26 

Sears, Prof. William A. , 1 
seat, 31, 44 

sheet, assignment, 9, 10, 21 
shifting, 5, 16, 18, 23, 35, 4l, 101 
shock absorbers, 70 
signals, 5, 12, 14, 16, 18, 29, 42, 43, 76, 

77, 79, 104 
signs, 4, 5, 14, 44, 47, 62, 65, 76, 78, 85, 

93, 9^ 
skid, 91 
skill, ii, 2, 4, 5, 18, 22, 37, 53, 54, 61, 

63, 67, 68, 77 
s moki ng , 12 
snow, 91 
spark plug, 25 






INDEX 



1U5 



speed, i, 16, 36, 59 

speedometer, 23, 26, 96 

springs, 13 

staff member, 8, ik, 93 

stalled car, 17, 75, 83 

stanchions, 12, 16, 18, 35, ^8, 50, 51, 

56, 59, 68, 120 
starting, 18, 31, 33, 35, ^2, 53, 106 
state approval, 11 
State Examiner, 8 
steering, 5, 18, 35, k*J , 105 
stereopsis, 115 
street, 16, 22, 55, 79, 91 
streetcar, 57 
stroke, exhaust, 25 

power, 25 
Stoner Traffic Board, 19, 78, 85, 130, 

131 
stop-light, 16 
stopping, 1^, 18, 33, 35, kl, 50, 

75, 76 
Stude taker, 13 
superhighway, 79 

supervisor, 8, 9, 10, lk, 18, 93 
supplies, 8, 9 
switch, head- light, 23, 95 
starter, 23, 106 
tail-light, 23 

Table of Contents, v 

teacher, 5 

teaching, efficient, lh } 135 

temperature, 12, 23, 25 

tests, ii, 8, 9, 10, 22, 32, 37, 109, 112, 

115, 118, 119, 121, 131, 132, 135, 137, 

139 
text, 3, 8, 21 
timer, 25 
timing, 25 
tires, 2, 9, 12, 13, 25, 33, 3^, 39, kl, 

k$, kk, 53, 56, 87, 96, 105 
towing, 28 



traction, 91, 107 
traffic, "board, 9, 130 

circle, 19, 79, 86, 89 

congested, l6 

driving, ii, 5, 6, 22, 67, 73, 77, 83, 
85, 91, 93, 117 

flow, 16, 6l, 85 

ordinances, 2, 22 

regulations, k, k$ , 70, 91 
training car, 12, 125 
transfer, 70 

transmission, 25, 101, 102 
truck, 78, 91, 107 
tube, life guard, kk 
turning, hf , k&, k-9, 51, 5k, 55, 69 

Uhlaner, Julius, 1 

vacuum, 31, 10 6 

valve, ^3 

vapor lock, 28, k$ , k-j , 8l, 95 

verbal instruction, 19 

vision, 22, 32, 75, 79, 81, 108, 112, Ilk, 

135 
visor, 26, 35 

water, 9, 12, 25, 33, 39, 63 
wheel, behind the, k, 5, Ik, 18, 21, 23, 
kl, 55, 86 

blocking, 6l 

steering, 5, Ik, 23, kl, 67 

suspension, 105 
White, Henry A., 1 
windows, 12, 17 
windshield, 12, 23, 31 
winter, 12, 56, 87 
Woodcock, Bert L., 1 
Women's Army Corp, ii 

Yale Bureau, of Street Traffic 
Research, 1 



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